Tech

HOUSTON – Results of two separate studies show lower rates of HPV vaccination in low-income populations, and identify vaccination barriers and tailored interventions that may help to increase HPV vaccine uptake rates.

Findings were presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, held in Houston, Dec. 6-9, 2009.

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) found striking disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccines in different low-income minority groups.

Most primary care physicians active in the Medicare program work in practices with too few patients to reliably measure significant differences in common measures of quality and cost performance, according to a study in the December 9 issue of JAMA.

Most parents know to screen television shows for sex, violence or other negative messaging—but what about children's shows themselves?

Research by the University of Alberta's Augustana Campus contends that children's programming can carry underlying political themes that may surprise parents. After analyzing 23 episodes of Thomas and Friends, a show about a train, his friends and their adventures on a fictional island, political scientist Shauna Wilton was able to identify themes that didn't seem constructive for youngsters.

Although a trip to summer camp is highly anticipated by over 11 million children and adults each year, sending a child off to summer camp can be a source of anxiety for parents. Findings from a new study published in the December issue of Injury Prevention should ease their concerns however.

University of Rochester optics professor Chunlei Guo made headlines in the past couple of years when he changed the color of everyday metals by scouring their surfaces with precise, high-intensity laser bursts.

Suddenly it was possible to make sheets of golden tungsten, or black aluminum.

A recent discovery in Guo's lab has shown that, beyond the aesthetic opportunities in his find lie some very powerful potential uses, like diagnosing some diseases with unprecedented ease and precision.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Using a nanoparticle from corn, a Purdue University scientist has found a way to lengthen the shelf life of many food products and sustain their health benefits.

"There are two pieces to the program," said Dr. Michele Anderson, ONR's program officer responsible for the effort. "One is a hardware demonstrator that is a hybrid photovoltaic battery system to enable the Marine Corps to use solar energy."

"The other piece is a tool kit," Anderson continued. "In other words, a Marine can enter into the GREENS computer what their expected mission profile is, and it will tell them which components of the GREENS system to pull out and take with them in order to provide their renewable power needs."

New York, NY, December 8, 2009 – Oral disease, primarily dental caries, is the most common pediatric disease and can lead to physical and psychological disabilities as well as significant morbidity in adulthood. In May 2000, Dr David Satcher's landmark report, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General, highlighted the state of oral health for children and adults in the United States and offered strategies to improve oral health outcomes.

Vienna, Austria - The International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) calls the attention of the delegates of the UN COP15 to the important contribution of the waste sector to reduce substantial CO2-emissions.

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest regional burden of blindness and visual impairment in the world (it has 11% of the world's population, but around 20% of the world's blindness). But simply putting in place more clinically trained manpower alone will not be sufficient to meet eye care needs, say Susan Lewallen (Kilimanjaro Centre for Community Ophthalmology, Good Samaritan Foundation, Moshi, Tanzania) and Amir Bedri Kello (Light for the World, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Dedicated managerial support will also be needed, they argue.

HOUSTON – Breast cancer screening guidelines generally recommend mammography begin at age 40. However, based on prior national research, an estimated 34 percent of non-Hispanic black women, 30 percent of non-Hispanic white women and 22 percent of Hispanic women aged 30 to 39 have reported having a mammogram.

HOUSTON – Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, primarily found in fish and seafood, may have a role in colorectal cancer prevention, according to results presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, held Dec. 6-9, 2009, in Houston.

TEMPE, Ariz.- An Arizona State University research team has developed a process that removes a key obstacle to producing lower-cost, renewable biofuels. The team has programmed a photosynthetic microbe to self-destruct, making the recovery of high-energy fats--and their biofuel byproducts--easier and potentially less costly.

Air Force Office of Scientific Research and National Science Foundation-funded professor, Dr. Xiang Zhang has demonstrated at the University of California, Berkeley the world's smallest semiconductor laser, which may have applications to the Air Force in communications, computing and bio-hazard detection.

The semiconductor, called a plasmon, can focus light the size of a single protein in a space that is smaller than half its wavelength while maintaining laser-like qualities that allow it to not dissipate over time.