Culture

About one in five U.S. tuberculosis patients reports abusing alcohol or using illicit drugs, and those who do appear more contagious and difficult to treat, according to a report in the January 26 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Despite the fact that most of us see our four-legged friends walking around every day, most of us-including many experts in natural history museums and illustrators for veterinary anatomy text books-apparently still don't know how they do it. A new study published in the January 27th issue of Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, shows that anatomists, taxidermists, and toy designers get the walking gait of horses and other quadruped animals wrong about half the time.

Happiness inequality in the U.S. has decreased since the 1970s, according to research published this month in the Journal of Legal Studies.

The study, by University of Pennsylvania economists Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers, found that the American population as a whole is no happier than it was three decades ago. But happiness inequality—the gap between the happy and the not-so-happy—has narrowed significantly.

We are all used to advertisers showing their products as superior among competitors. But a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research shows that it's not a bad idea for marketers to offer comparisons that show their brand is equal to the competitor in some dimensions—parity information.

In fact, authors Prashant Malaviya (Georgetown University) and Brian Sternthal (Northwestern University) discovered that offering parity information in the right dose can positively affect consumers' attitudes toward products.

If a vacation starts out bad and gets better, you'll have a more positive memory than if it starts out good and gets worse—if you're asked about it right afterward, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

In the study, authors Nicole Votolato Montgomery (College of William and Mary) and H. Rao Unnava (Ohio State University) set out to broaden our understanding of how people evaluate past sequences of events, such as vacations.

Don't think too much before purchasing that new car or television. According to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research, people who deliberate about decisions make less accurate judgments than people who trust their instincts.

Consumers approach problems, products, and websites differently according to distinct thinking styles, says a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Authors Thomas P. Novak and Donna L. Hoffman (both University of California, Riverside) say consumers tend to think either rationally or experientially and marketers should design experiences for consumers that allow a good fit between the style and the task.

Charging extra for "add-on" features on a product may backfire on merchandisers, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Authors Marco Bertini (London Business School), Elie Ofek (Harvard Business School), and Dan Ariely (Duke University) examined the way consumers perceive common objects such as digital cameras, laptop computers, and coffee when firms charge extra for add-ons.

As the United States continues to experience a nursing shortage that is expected to grow to one million nurses by 2016, a new research study highlights a pool of potential candidates who could alleviate the shortage in an economical way.

WASHINGTON -- Significant loss of life, destroyed property and businesses, and repairs to infrastructure could be avoided by replacing Federal Emergency Management Agency flood maps with ones that contain high-accuracy and high-resolution land surface elevation data, says a new report from the National Research Council. The benefits of more accurate flood maps will outweigh the costs, mainly because insurance premiums and building restrictions would better match the actual flood risks.