Brain

Environmental scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have led an international collaboration to improve satellite observations of tropical forests.

Responsible for nearly one-third of the world's terrestrial photosynthesis, tropical forests are a critical biome for examining climate change and its potential impacts across the Earth.

Ann Arbor, February 20, 2018 - Suicide is a major national concern in the US. In 2016, it was the second leading cause of death in adolescents aged 12-18 years, with over 1,900 individuals in this age group dying by suicide. Researchers have now identified sexual orientation discordance - sexual contact that is inconsistent with the individual's sexual orientation - as a potential risk factor for adolescent suicidal ideation and/or attempts.

Women with asthma who only use short-acting asthma relievers take longer to become pregnant than other women, according to research published in the European Respiratory Journal [1].

However, the study of more than 5,000 women in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Ireland also shows that women with asthma who use long-acting asthma preventers conceive as quickly as other women.

Elementary school children who read below grade level may have challenges with their eyesight even if standard tests show they see 20/20, according to a new study from the University of Waterloo.

The study showed that children with reading challenges may have lower than expected binocular vision test results, something a standard eye exam may overlook.

Astrophysicists at MIPT's Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied Research of Relativistic Objects of the Universe have developed a model for testing a hypothesis about supermassive black holes that lie at the centers of galaxies. The new model enables scientists to predict how much rotational energy a black hole loses when it emits beams of ionized matter known as astrophysical jets. The energy loss is estimated based on measurements of a jet's magnetic field. The paper was published in the journal Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences.

Web-based learning tools can help deepen science knowledge among all middle school students, and ease the science literacy gap for underachieving students, according to a three-year study published today in the International Journal of Science Education.

Researchers introduced four interactive online science units, which students and teachers accessed with computers or tablets, into 13 middle school in two US states.

Feb. 6, 2018--Thousands of lives would be saved each year, and many more serious illnesses avoided, if U.S. counties met standards set by the American Thoracic Society for the two most important air pollutants, according to a new report by the ATS and the Marron Institute of Urban Management at New York University.

The ATS's standards for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are more protective than those adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. If the ATS's standards were met, each year in the U.S. approximately:

6,270 lives would be saved,

PHILADELPHIA (February 5, 2018) - Pressure-related skin injuries, a nurse-sensitive quality indicator in hospitals, are associated with increased morbidity and higher costs of care. There's been much attention focused on hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPI) in the adult population. However, while preventable, immobility-related and medical device-related pressure injuries (MDPI) also occur in hospitalized infants and children.

In a study to be published online February 2 in Nature Communications, scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai describe an extensive analysis of novel grape-derived compounds, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) and malvidin-3'-O-glucoside (Mal-gluc),which might be developed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of depression. The study results indicate that these natural compounds may attenuate depression by targeting newly discovered underlying mechanisms of the disease.

A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation.

This rotation could become the building block for a new form of information technology, and for the design of molecular-scale rotors to drive microscopic motors and machines.