Body

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study at Oregon State University has finally resolved a controversy that cellular biologists have been arguing over for nearly 50 years, with findings that may aid research on everything from birth defects and genetic diseases to the most classic "cell division" issue of them all – cancer.

The results are being published in PLoS Biology, a professional journal. The studies were supported by the National Science Foundation and the American Heart Association.

It is known that the phonic structure of calls produced by males during the breeding season may signal quality-related characteristics in many different types of animals. Previous research on mammals has mainly focussed on the relationship between the acoustic components of vocalizations and one aspect of male quality: body size.

The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is a widely cultivated crop that has been subjected to intensive breeding since the Neolithic period (from ~10,500 to ~6,000 years ago). The domestication of grapevine has undergone a selection for traits important for its cultivation and usage.

Popular slimming programmes do result in reduced energy intake while providing enough nutrients. A new scientific analysis, published today in BioMed Central's open access Nutrition Journal, provides comprehensive dietary data about Slim Fast, Atkins, Weight Watchers and Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan.

Bacteria save energy by producing proteins that moonlight, having different roles at different times, which may also protect the microbes from being killed. The moonlighting activity of one enzyme from the tuberculosis bacterium makes it partially resistant to a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics, according to a paper published in the September issue of the journal Microbiology.

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare childhood disease that resembles premature aging, and few affected children reach their teenage years. It is caused by a mutation in the LMNA gene that leads to the formation of progerin — a mutant form of the protein prelamin A. Once made, both progerin and normal prelamin A have the molecule farnesyl attached to them. This addition is later removed from normal prelamin A, whereas it cannot be removed from progerin.

The sooner an individual who has had a heart attack is treated, the better their chance of survival and the less permanent damage is done to their heart. So, Robert Gerszten and colleagues, at Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, have developed a new method for early detection of a heart attack.

CHESTNUT HILL, MA (September 2, 2008) – Using two abundant and relatively inexpensive elements, Boston College chemists have produced nanonets, a flexible webbing of nano-scale wires that multiplies surface area critical to improving the performance of the wires in electronics and energy applications.

The pace of weight gain in early childhood may be associated with increased blood pressure in adulthood, according to a report in Hypertension: Journal of the American Heart Association.

In the first detailed study over the first five years of life to examine whether accelerated infant growth predicts adult systolic and diastolic blood pressure, researchers found that:

Parents of children with special health needs in California often are not aware that there is a paid family leave insurance program available for their use, with only 5 percent of those surveyed having used the program, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA.

Use of sodium bicarbonate for hydration during coronary angiography for patients with kidney disease did not reduce the risk of developing serious kidney problems related to the use of contrast agents, compared to use of sodium chloride, according to a study in the September 3 issue of JAMA.

California's pioneering paid family leave program has largely failed to reach one of its major target groups, according to a new study by RAND Corporation researchers.

Few parents of children with serious chronic illnesses have used the program, despite having paid into the program through payroll withholdings, and the vast majority of these parents aren't even aware that the program exists, according to researchers.

New Rochelle, NY, September 2, 2008—The many recent reports documenting the therapeutic efficacy of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in animal models of human disease may actually be describing non-specific therapeutic effects related to the ability of siRNA to activate an immune response, according to a paper in the September 2008 issue (Volume 19, Number 9) of Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

The Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center recently opened a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored, phase II clinical study for certain sub-types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

The study is based on research from VCU Massey Cancer Center as well as other centers suggesting that combining two novel, recently approved drugs that have shown effectiveness in certain blood cancers may be active in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, or mantle cell lymphoma. The study is intended for patients whose disease has progressed following treatment with other regimens.

Bethesda, MD (Sept. 1, 2008) – Colorectal adenomas, the precursor polyps in virtually all colorectal cancers, occur infrequently in younger adults, but the rate sharply increases after age 50. Additionally, African Americans have a higher rate of proximal, or right-sided, polyps, and may have a worse prognosis for survival if the polyps become cancerous. Therefore, the results of this study further emphasize the importance of colonoscopies, which view the entire colon, for the prevention of colorectal cancer beginning at age 50.