A new analytical approach, described in open-access journal Frontiers in Pediatrics, shows how different interventions - cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotics - can alter an infant's developing gut microbiome.

New research conducted at the stem cell centre, DanStem, at the University of Copenhagen shows that insulin is a key determinant of embryonic stem cell potency in mammals. When large amounts of Insulin are around, stem cells retain their ability to make all the cell types in the body. However, too little insulin leads to embryonic stem cells being transformed into a new type of stem cell, one that can make tissues that support foetal development and helps make the different internal organs.

In May 2010, a landslide devastated the municipality of Saint-Jude, Quebec, and was responsible for four fatalities when a house was destroyed by sediment movement. Building on investigations that took place immediately after the landslide, a new study published today in the Canadian Geotechnical Journal discusses triggers of the Saint-Jude landslide that occurred in nearly 10,000-year-old sensitive clay sediment that "liquefies" when disturbed.

Researchers at Dartmouth College have developed a technique to produce synthetic steroids that could pave the way for a cascade of new drug discoveries. The process, published in the journal Nature Chemistry, facilitates access to rare, mirror-image isomers of naturally occurring steroid structures.

Nagoya, Japan - As the NASA Curiosity rover roams the surface of Mars, its ChemCam captures the chemical makeup of its surroundings with a specially designed laser system. It is the most powerful laser to operate on the surface of another planet. The burst of infrared light it fires lasts only a few billionths of seconds, but it is powerful enough to vaporize the spot it hits at more than 8,000°C.

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Scientists have used satellite data to monitor underground water reserves in California's Silicon Valley, discovering that water levels rebounded quickly after a severe drought that lasted from 2012-15.

The research points to the success of aggressive conservation measures. It also helps to lay the groundwork for low-cost monitoring of subterranean water reserves in California and elsewhere in the world.

Subnanometer noble-metal clusters have been studied previously for these possibilities in catalytic applications. For example, it is known that platinum is used as a catalyst for a fuel cell, which is conductive and exhibits magnetism. Platinum is indispensable as a material for the next-generation energy grid, but it is "rare metal" whose reserves are limited. In order to make effective use of resources, it is essential to improve the atomic level accuracy of subnanometer metal clusters and increase the amount of synthesis.

CLEVELAND--A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent being tested by researchers at Case Western Reserve University not only pinpoints breast cancers at early stages but differentiates between aggressive and slow-growing types.

"Doing both will help doctors find the right treatment," said Zheng-Rong Lu, the M. Frank Rudy and Margaret Domiter Rudy Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Case Western Reserve and leader of the research. "There's no such technology available now that we know of."

A Dartmouth-led study has demonstrated how the latest aerial thermal imagery is transforming archaeology due to advancements in technology. Today's thermal cameras, commercial drones and photogrammetric software has introduced a new realm of possibilities for collecting site data.

NASA's asteroid sample return spacecraft successfully used Earth's gravity on Friday to slingshot itself on a path toward the asteroid Bennu, for a rendezvous next August.

At 12:52 p.m. EDT on Sept. 22, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security - Regolith Explorer) spacecraft came within 10,711 miles (17,237 km) of Antarctica, just south of Cape Horn, Chile, before following a route north over the Pacific Ocean.