Earth

Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia

Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia

A new work based on 3-D supercomputer simulations of earthquake data has found hidden rock structures deep under East Asia. Researchers from China, Canada, and the U.S. worked together to publish their results in March 2015 in the American Geophysical Union Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth.

The scientists used seismic data from 227 East Asia earthquakes during 2007-2011, which they used to image depths to about 900 kilometers, or about 560 miles below ground.

Phosphorus cycling and the ocean's hidden fertilizer

Phosphorus cycling and the ocean's hidden fertilizer

Phosphorus is one of the most common substances on Earth. An essential nutrient for every living organism--humans require approximately 700 milligrams per day--we are rarely concerned about consuming enough of it because it is present in most of the foods we eat. Despite its ubiquity and living organisms' utter dependence on it, we know surprisingly little about how it moves, or cycles, through the ocean environment.

Typhoon Dolphin looms

Typhoon Dolphin looms

Typhoon Dolphin passed through the Northern Marianas today just to the north of Guam with sustained winds estimated at 95 knots (~109 mph) by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). The center passed through the Rota Channel less than about 25 miles from the northern tip of Guam, close enough for the southern half of the eye wall to rake the northern part of the island with powerful winds.

A wind gust of 106 mph was reported at Andersen Air Force Base located on the northeast corner of Guam. Maximum wave height is 35 feet.

First warm-blooded fish

First warm-blooded fish

New research by NOAA Fisheries has revealed the opah, or moonfish, as the first fully warm-blooded fish that circulates heated blood throughout its body much like mammals and birds, giving it a competitive advantage in the cold ocean depths.

The silvery fish, roughly the size of a large automobile tire, is known from oceans around the world and dwells hundreds of feet beneath the surface in chilly, dimly lit waters. It swims by rapidly flapping its large, red pectoral fins like wings through the water.

Don't count Mother Earth out when it comes to absorbing carbon emissions

Two generations ago there was a lot of doom and gloom about food but the obesity epidemic worldwide shows we have solved that problem, if not the distribution one. Bridging to a carbon-free future may not need to be done in a panic either, according to a paper in Biogeosciences. The model affirms other models stating that as carbon emissions continue to climb, so too has the Earth's capacity to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

About half of the emissions of CO2 each year remain in the atmosphere; the other half is taken up by the ecosystems on land and the oceans.

Raising groundwater keeps Silicon Valley from sinking

A new report shows that varying groundwater levels in valleys throughout California, balanced by water imported via the State Water Project and the federal Central Valley Project, are more important than people realize.

Nano-sized faucet puts quantum physics on tap

We all know intuitively that normal liquids flow more quickly as the channel containing them tightens. Think of a river flowing through narrow rapids.

But what if a pipe were so amazingly tiny that only a few atoms of superfluid helium could squeeze through its opening at once? According to a longstanding quantum-mechanics model, the superfluid helium would behave differently from a normal liquid: far from speeding up, it would actually slow down.

Phage spread antibiotic resistance

Investigators found that nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another--or from one species to another. "Our work suggests that such transfer could spread antibiotic resistance in environments such as food production units and hospitals and clinics," said corresponding author Friederike Hilbert, DVM.

New study finds that many probiotics are contaminated with traces of gluten

More than half of popular probiotics contain traces of gluten, according to an analysis performed by investigators at the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). Tests on 22 top-selling probiotics revealed that 12 of them (or 55%) had detectable gluten.

Unemployment linked to rise in prostate cancer deaths

The United States remains mired in an economic downturn, with over 90 million unemployed and many of the employed making less than they made before 2009. The knock-on effects of the economic downturn have been explored in economy and psychology. Now researchers are examining the effects of unemployment on an even darker subject - cancer mortality.

One would think that dealing with unemployment was challenge enough. But according to the latest research published in ecancermedicalscience, rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality.