Earth

Researchers create quantum dots with single-atom precision

Researchers create quantum dots with single-atom precision

Study finds Emperor penguin in peril

Study finds Emperor penguin in peril

An international team of scientists studying Emperor penguin populations across Antarctica finds the iconic animals in danger of dramatic declines by the end of the century due to climate change. Their study, published today in Nature Climate Change, finds the Emperor penguin "fully deserving of endangered status due to climate change."

The Emperor penguin is currently under consideration for inclusion under the US Endangered Species Act. Criteria to classify species by their extinction risk are based on the global population dynamics.

Fiat drives forward ‘wonder material’ to revolutionize automotive industry

Fiat drives forward ‘wonder material’ to revolutionize automotive industry

A pioneering research project to develop lighter, stronger, more energy-efficient, and safe vehicles using ‘wonder material’ graphene is being led by the University of Sunderland and could potentially revolutionise the global automotive industry.

Graphene is a material made from a single layer of carbon atoms, which is stronger than diamond, lightweight and flexible, first discovered during experiments by Professors Kostya Novoselov and Andrew Geim, who were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2010.

Improved method for isotope enrichment could secure a vital global commodity

Improved method for isotope enrichment could secure a vital global commodity

AUSTIN, Texas — Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have devised a new method for enriching a group of the world's most expensive chemical commodities, stable isotopes, which are vital to medical imaging and nuclear power, as reported this week in the journal Nature Physics. For many isotopes, the new method is cheaper than existing methods. For others, it is more environmentally friendly.

Study: To address climate change, nothing substitutes for reducing CO2 emissions

Study: To address climate change, nothing substitutes for reducing CO2 emissions

The politically expedient way to mitigate climate change is essentially no way at all, according to a comprehensive new study by University of Chicago climatologist Raymond Pierrehumbert.

New report evaluates progress of comprehensive everglades restoration plan

New report evaluates progress of comprehensive everglades restoration plan

Insights from nature for more efficient water splitting

High CO2 levels cause warming in the tropics

The impact of the greenhouse gas CO2 on the Earth's temperature is well established by climate models and temperature records over the past 100 years, as well as coupled records of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature throughout Earth history. However, past temperature records have suggested that warming is largely confined to mid-to-high latitudes, especially the poles, whereas tropical temperatures appear to be relatively stable: the tropical thermostat model.

'Compressive sensing' provides new approach to measuring a quantum system

In quantum physics, momentum and position are an example of conjugate variables. This means they are connected by Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, which says that both quantities cannot be simultaneously measured precisely. Recently, researchers have been developing novel techniques, such as "weak measurement," to measure both at the same time. Now University of Rochester physicists have shown that a technique called compressive sensing also offers a way to measure both variables at the same time, without violating the Uncertainty Principle.

Extinct undersea volcanoes squashed under Earth's crust cause tsunami earthquakes, according to new research

New research has revealed the causes and warning signs of rare tsunami earthquakes, which may lead to improved detection measures.

Tsunami earthquakes happen at relatively shallow depths in the ocean and are small in terms of their magnitude. However, they create very large tsunamis, with some earthquakes that only measure 5.6 on the Richter scale generating waves that reach up to ten metres when they hit the shore.