Earth

Charge ordering in mixed-valence compounds, which usually contain positively charged cations in more than one formal charge state, is of crucial importance for materials science. Many functional properties of materials like magnetism, magnetoresistance, ionic conductivity and superconductivity are found in mixed valence compounds. One of the very first attempts to understand the mechanism of a charge ordering transition dates back to 1939 when Evert Verwey, a Dutch chemist, observed a sudden jump in resistivity in the prototypic mixed valence compound magnetite, Fe3O4, near -150°C.

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - Plants lack eyes and ears, but they can still see, hear, smell and respond to environmental cues and dangers -- especially to virulent pathogens. They do this with the aid of hundreds of membrane proteins that can sense microbes or other stresses.

MIT researchers have developed hardware that uses electric fields to move droplets of chemical or biological solutions around a surface, mixing them in ways that could be used to test thousands of reactions in parallel.

On their fall migration south in the Northern Hemisphere, scores of birds are being lured by artificial light pollution into urban areas that may be an ecological trap, according to the University of Delaware's Jeff Buler.

Buler, associate professor in UD's Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, and his research team used 16 weather surveillance radars from the northeastern United States over a seven-year period to map the distributions of migratory birds during their fall stopovers. The research is published in the scientific journal Ecology Letters.

Bikram yoga, a hot yoga style, is no more effective at improving health than the same yoga postures at room temperature - that's what research published in Experimental Physiology and carried out by Texas State University and the University of Texas at Austin, USA, has found.

A new study from WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) and partners reveals for the first time the ways in which wild weather swings and extreme icing events are negatively impacting the largest land mammal of the Earth's polar realms--the muskoxen. The paper demonstrates that while this denizen of the Arctic and other cold-adapted species have spectacular adaptations, the previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges are costly for the animals, if not deadly.

An experiment featuring the largest flotilla of sensors ever deployed in a single area provides new insights into how marine debris, or flotsam, moves on the surface of the ocean.

The experiment conducted in the Gulf of Mexico near the site of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill placed hundreds of drifting sensors to observe how material moves on the ocean's surface. Rather than spread out, as current calculations would predict, many of them clumped together in a tight cluster.

DURHAM, N.H. - Tropical forests span a huge area, harbor a wide diversity of species, and are important to water and nutrient cycling on a planet scale. But in ancient Amazonia, over 500 years ago, clearing tropical forests was a way of survival to provide land for families to farm and villages to prosper. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire used high-tech tools to more precisely view where these cleared sites were and how much lasting impact they had on the rainforest in the Amazon Basin in South America.

New York, NY--January 18, 2018--T cells play a key role in the body's immune response against pathogens. As a new class of therapeutic approaches, T cells are being harnessed to fight cancer, promising more precise, longer-lasting mitigation than traditional, chemical-based approaches. These "living drugs" are poised to transform medicine, with a growing number of cellular therapies receiving FDA-approval.

More needs to be done to educate audiences, including viewers at home and filmmakers, on the unethical nature of using primates in the film industry, says a leading expert in a new study.

Brooke C. Aldrich, trustee at the charity Neotropical Primate Conservation, highlights serious concerns around the wider implications of using primate "actors" in films, including the trivialization of their conservation and welfare needs and representing them as suitable pets to viewers.