Culture

WASHINGTON -- Based on a novel approach to drug discovery, researchers at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center say an agent approved to treat a type of leukemia might also help young people with a much rarer and aggressive form of cancer, Ewing sarcoma.

When doctors prescribe antibiotics for children with common respiratory infections, a more selective approach is better. Researchers who studied pediatric treatment practices in 30,000 patients with earaches, strep throat and other common infections found that narrow-spectrum antibiotics, which act against a smaller range of bacteria, had fewer adverse effects than broad-spectrum antibiotics, which target a broader variety of bacteria.

MISSOULA - University of Montana scientists have published a study in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution showing that bacterial diversity may stick around millions of years longer than previously thought. The researchers, in UM's Division of Biological Sciences, were led by Associate Professor Scott Miller.

All the trillions of cells in our body share the same genetic information and are derived from a single, fertilized egg. When this initial cell multiplies during fetal development, its daughter cells become more and more specialized. This process, called cell differentiation, gives rise to all the various cell types, such as nerve, muscle, or blood cells, which are diverse in shape and function and make up tissues and organs. How can the same genetic blueprint lead to such diversity? The answer lies in the way that genes are switched on or off during the course of development.

Osaka - Shine a powerful laser onto a solid, and you get a beam of high-energy protons. Far from being a curiosity, this phenomenon has important applications, such as in neutron-generation research. Theoretically, the more intense the laser, the faster (in other words, more energetic) the resulting protons. However, we recently seem to have hit a wall, with stronger lasers failing to yield the expected boost in acceleration.

An international team of scientists has developed a strategy to boost people's ability to adapt to climate change, revealed in a new study published today in the prestigious journal, Nature Climate Change.

"Millions of coastal people in the tropics have been affected by the global coral bleaching event that unfolded over the previous two years. We need to find ways to help these people adapt to change," said Professor Joshua Cinner from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University.

A new study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, published by Springer, shows that opioid prescribing has dropped after a peak in 2012. Lead author Katherine Hadlandsmyth of the Iowa City VA Healthcare System and the University of Iowa in the US further noted that the decline was mostly due to decreases in long-term opioid prescribing, which carries much greater risk for harmful side effects, addiction and overdose, relative to short-term prescribing.

Study suggests female chess players are not affected by negative stereotypes about women's chess abilities during competitive games

Findings gathered from 160,000 ranked chess players and more than five million chess matches

Results are in contrast with previous findings on phenomenon of "stereotype threat" which suggested that awareness of negative stereotypes can hamper women's performance

Data from 160,000 ranked chess players and more than 5 million chess matches suggest that women playing against men perform better than expected based on their official chess ratings, according to new findings published in Psychological Science.

Women in public relations are more likely than men to seek allies and form coalitions before they give ethics counsel to senior leaders, while men are more likely to rely on presenting research, according to a Baylor University study.

The study also showed that while senior public relations executives in the study overall tend to use "rational approaches," such as research, case studies and appeals about what is right and lawful, success depends on building relationships with colleagues in other departments so that they have backup when ethical issues arise.