Brain

SAN DIEGO - Antibiotics prescribed by dentists may contribute to the growing problem of Clostridium difficile (C. diff), a serious and potentially deadly infection that causes severe diarrhea, suggests research presented at IDWeek 2017. And many of those antibiotics are likely unnecessary, researchers note.

It is hoped the findings, published recently in the Journal of Applied Volcanology, will help increase our understanding of volcanic hazards and the subsequent threat to life.

A tenth of the world's population lives within the potential footprint of volcanic hazards with more than 800 million people living within 100 km of active volcanoes.

Between 1500 and 2017 more than 278,000 people met their fate as a result of volcanic hazards - on average that's about 540 people a year.

CORVALLIS, Ore. - Research-funding agencies that require scientists to declare at the proposal stage how their projects will be "transformative" may actually be hindering discovery, according to a study by Oregon State University ecologists.

The requirement can result in decreased funding for the "incremental" research that often paves the way for paradigm-shifting breakthroughs, the OSU scientists assert.

Their findings, as well as their recommendation for how to best foster transformative research, were published recently in Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career could predict mental health problems such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after return from deployment, according to a study published in the open access journal BMC Psychology.

One of the most economically important fish is shrinking in body weight, length and overall physical size as ocean temperatures rise, according to new research by LSU Boyd Professor R. Eugene Turner published today. The average body size of Menhaden -- a small, silver fish -- caught off the coasts from Maine to Texas -- has shrunk by about 15 percent over the past 65 years.

COLUMBUS, Ohio - One of the tactics that discourages student cheating may not work as well in courses that college students particularly dislike, a new study has found.

Previous research suggests instructors who emphasize mastering the content in their classes encounter less student cheating than those who push students to get good grades.

A landmark study led by the Black Dog Institute has revealed that regular exercise of any intensity can prevent future depression - and just one hour can help.

Published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the results show even small amounts of exercise can protect against depression, with mental health benefits seen regardless of age or gender.

In the largest and most extensive study of its kind, the analysis involved 33,908 Norwegian adults who had their levels of exercise and symptoms of depression and anxiety monitored over 11 years.

A program that focuses on strengthening parenting skills also improves symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 3-8 year-olds, according to researchers at the at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. FPG scientists completed a rigorous review of evidence that demonstrated the effectiveness of the "Incredible Years® Basic Parent Program."

DURHAM, N.C. -- A pilot program reduced absenteeism in elementary schools by an average of 10 percent, according to a new study by Duke researchers. Chronic absenteeism is linked to poor grades, low test scores and eventually, dropping out of high school.

A Penn State researcher and her collaborator found that physical abuse was associated with decreases in children's cognitive performance, while non-abusive forms of physical punishment were independently associated with reduced school engagement and increased peer isolation.