Brain

March 15, 2018 -- A study by researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health finds that cigars commonly used to roll blunts--hollowed out cigars that are filled with marijuana and smoked--dominate the cigar marketplace in states where recreational marijuana is legal compared to nationally. The findings, which could help direct tobacco prevention efforts, are published online in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

An international team led by researchers from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) has developed a method to measure the integration or segregation of immigrants based on the messages they write on the social network, Twitter.

Despite widespread availability of morning meal programs, a large number of Canadian students are still skipping breakfast, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

The study looked at the eating habits of 42,000 students from 87 secondary schools in Alberta and Ontario during the 2014/15 school year. It found that 39 percent of students reported eating breakfast fewer than three days in a typical school week.

The findings were consistent with national data that showed nationwide, 48.5 percent of adolescents skipped breakfast at least once a week.

"What patients bring to their clinicians is their stories," writes behavioral scientist Thomas Egnew. It is through these stories that clinicians try to understand and treat patients' health. When patients experience chronic or life-threatening illness and their suffering increases, clinicians can take on the role of holistic healer by addressing the inevitable existential conflicts in patients' narratives and helping them edit their stories to promote acceptance and meaning.

According to a panel of international experts, clinical trials of multimorbidity should measure and report, at minimum, quality of life, mortality, and mental health outcomes. Twenty-six multimorbidity researchers, clinicians, and patients from 13 countries participated in a Delphi Panel and reached consensus on 17 core outcomes for multimorbidity research. The highest ranked outcomes were health related quality of life, mental health outcomes and mortality.

Many women in science are raising concerns over the fact that parents with young children are often excluded from fully participating in academic conference activities.

A recent study published in Oxford Economic Papers indicates that university education has a dramatically positive effect on the development of non-cognitive skills like conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness, in addition to the expected intellectual benefits. The paper also shows that the impact of education on these skills is even more dramatic for students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

People with schizophrenia may now benefit from more effective, tailored treatments and greater self-empowerment, thanks to research establishing a link between childhood trauma and some of schizophrenia's most common symptoms.

Researchers from Orygen, the National Centre of Excellence for Youth Mental Health; the University of Melbourne; Port Phillip Prison and University Hospital of Gran Canaria Dr Negrin, Spain, have shown that childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse are associated with severe hallucinations in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

March 9, 2018 - High-altitude areas--particularly the US intermountain states--have increased rates of suicide and depression, suggests a review of research evidence in the Harvard Review of Psychiatry. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.