Body

Bottom Line: The risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was increased in children of mothers with the three main types of diabetes that complicate pregnancy, findings that add new information on type 1 diabetes and extend what is already known about type 2 and gestational diabetes.

Every day the human gut works on a fine-tuned balance that ensures the retention of essential nutrients while it prevents the entrance of potential armful microbes. Contributing to this surveillance system is a specialised group of immune cells that are held back due to unknown reasons although they have many characteristics of activated cells. Now, a new study led by Marc Veldhoen, group leader at Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes (iMM; Portugal) shows how these cells are kept under control.

PHILADELPHIA - Influenza A (flu A) hijacks host proteins for viral RNA splicing and blocking these interactions caused replication of the virus to slow, according to new research published in Nature Communications by Kristin W. Lynch, PhD, chair of the department of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and doctoral student Matthew Thompson. Their results also suggest that infection with flu A may reduce splicing of some host genes, which could point to novel strategies for antiviral therapies.

June 22, 2018-- Administration of nitric oxide gas during and for 24 hours following heart surgery decreased the risk of patients developing acute and chronic kidney problems, a randomized, controlled trial conducted in China found.

PORTLAND, Oregon - Fighting cancer means killing cancer cells. However, oncologists know that it's also important to halt the movement of cancer cells before they spread throughout the body. New research, published today in the journal Nature Communications, shows that it may be possible to freeze cancer cells and kill them where they stand.

Unable to carry signals based on sights and sounds to the genes that record memories, a broken shuttle protein may hinder learning in patients with intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and autism.

This is the implication of a study led by researchers at NYU School of Medicine and published online June 22 in Nature Communications.

Specifically, the research team found that mice genetically engineered to lack the gene for the gamma-CaMKII shuttle protein took twice as long as normal mice to form a memory needed to complete a simple task.

The first comprehensive study comparing the outcomes of robotic surgery to those of traditional open surgery in any organ has found that the surgeries are equally effective in treating bladder cancer. The seven-year study, conducted at 15 institutions, including Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, and directed by Dipen J. Parekh, M.D., chair of urology and director of robotic surgery at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, is published in the June 23 issue of The Lancet.

Eating foods high in salt is known to contribute to high blood pressure, but does that linear relationship extend to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death? Recent cohort studies have contested that relationship, but a new study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and their colleagues using multiple measurements confirms it. The study suggests that an inaccurate way of estimating sodium intake may help account for the paradoxical findings of others.

Among the most studied protein machines in history, mTORC1 has long been known to sense whether a cell has enough energy to build the proteins it needs to multiply as part of growth. Because faulty versions of mTORC1 contribute to the abnormal growth seen in cancer, drugs targeting the complex have been the subject of 1,300 clinical trials since 1970.

Now a new study finds that mTORC1 has a second function of profound importance: controlling how "crowded" human cells become.

Analysis of large data sets from post-mortem brain samples of people with and without Alzheimer's disease has revealed new evidence that viral species, particularly herpesviruses, may have a role in Alzheimer's disease biology. Researchers funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health, made the discovery by harnessing data from brain banks and cohort studies participating in the Accelerating Medicines Partnership - Alzheimer's Disease (AMP-AD) consortium.