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Why Fraternal Twins Run In Families

Science2.0 - 1 hour 27 min ago

If a woman's female relatives have fraternal twins, she is more likely to give birth to twins herself, but the genes behind this phenomenon have remained a mystery. Now, researchers reporting April 28 in the American Journal of Human Genetics have nailed down two genes associated with twinning. They show genetic links between having twins and female production of, and response to, follicle-stimulating hormone, which may help predict how some women respond to infertility treatments.


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Categories: Science2.0

Why Fraternal Twins Run In Families

General - 1 hour 27 min ago

If a woman's female relatives have fraternal twins, she is more likely to give birth to twins herself, but the genes behind this phenomenon have remained a mystery. Now, researchers reporting April 28 in the American Journal of Human Genetics have nailed down two genes associated with twinning. They show genetic links between having twins and female production of, and response to, follicle-stimulating hormone, which may help predict how some women respond to infertility treatments.


read more

Categories: News

Analyzing The Psyche Of Risky Drivers

Science2.0 - 1 hour 28 min ago

Road crashes are the world's leading cause of preventable death and injury in people under 35, accounting for around 5 million casualties every year. Repeat offenders make a disproportionate contribution to these statistics - and are known for their poor response to education and prevention efforts.

But a better understanding of the subconscious and emotional processes of high-risk drivers could make a difference, according to new research from McGill University.

In a study focusing on repeat drunk driving and speeding offenders, researchers have discovered distinct behavioural, personality and neurobiological profiles behind each of these forms of dangerous driving.


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Categories: Science2.0

Analyzing The Psyche Of Risky Drivers

General - 1 hour 28 min ago

Road crashes are the world's leading cause of preventable death and injury in people under 35, accounting for around 5 million casualties every year. Repeat offenders make a disproportionate contribution to these statistics - and are known for their poor response to education and prevention efforts.

But a better understanding of the subconscious and emotional processes of high-risk drivers could make a difference, according to new research from McGill University.

In a study focusing on repeat drunk driving and speeding offenders, researchers have discovered distinct behavioural, personality and neurobiological profiles behind each of these forms of dangerous driving.


read more

Categories: News

Reptiles Share Sleep Patterns With Mammals And Birds After All

Science2.0 - 1 hour 28 min ago

A new study reveals that the sleep patterns previously thought exclusive to mammals and birds - REM and slow-wave sleep patterns - are also found in reptiles. The results shake up our understanding of the evolution of sleep. Amniotes are a group of tetrapod vertebrates comprising reptiles, birds and mammals. Because slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) are thought to be exclusive to mammals and birds, it's believed that these sleep states evolved twice after mammals and birds diverged from reptiles. However, results by Mark Shein-Idelson et al. now reveal SWS and REM sleep patterns in the Australian bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, suggesting that the sleep states may have evolved in a common ancestor of all amniotes, more than 300 million years ago.


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Categories: Science2.0

Reptiles Share Sleep Patterns With Mammals And Birds After All

General - 1 hour 28 min ago

A new study reveals that the sleep patterns previously thought exclusive to mammals and birds - REM and slow-wave sleep patterns - are also found in reptiles. The results shake up our understanding of the evolution of sleep. Amniotes are a group of tetrapod vertebrates comprising reptiles, birds and mammals. Because slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) are thought to be exclusive to mammals and birds, it's believed that these sleep states evolved twice after mammals and birds diverged from reptiles. However, results by Mark Shein-Idelson et al. now reveal SWS and REM sleep patterns in the Australian bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, suggesting that the sleep states may have evolved in a common ancestor of all amniotes, more than 300 million years ago.


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Categories: News

Repurposing Chemo: Top 1 Inhibitor As New Sepsis Treatment?

ACSH - 2 hours 21 min ago
Sepsis occurs when the body’s response to infection goes into overdrive, leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Sepsis has an overall mortality rate of between 20 and 50 percent, and kills more people than do HIV and breast cancer. It afflicts up to 500,000 people a year in the U.S. and millions more worldwide,. … Continue reading →
Categories: ACSH

Metal Hip Replacements Implanted Since 2006 More Prone To Failure

Science2.0 - 2 hours 55 min ago

Metal on metal hip replacements implanted since 2006 are more prone to failure and the need for further surgery, finds research looking at revision rates at one hospital trust for the DePuy Pinnacle device, and published in the online journal BMJ Open.

A higher rate of manufacturing issues since 2006, with more than a third of hips manufactured outside the stated specifications, may be to blame, suggest the researchers.

They looked specifically at the long term performance of the 36 mm Pinnacle metal on metal hip--the most commonly implanted metal hip in the world--in a bid to uncover the risk factors associated with early failure and the need for further surgery.


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Categories: Science2.0

Metal Hip Replacements Implanted Since 2006 More Prone To Failure

General - 2 hours 55 min ago

Metal on metal hip replacements implanted since 2006 are more prone to failure and the need for further surgery, finds research looking at revision rates at one hospital trust for the DePuy Pinnacle device, and published in the online journal BMJ Open.

A higher rate of manufacturing issues since 2006, with more than a third of hips manufactured outside the stated specifications, may be to blame, suggest the researchers.

They looked specifically at the long term performance of the 36 mm Pinnacle metal on metal hip--the most commonly implanted metal hip in the world--in a bid to uncover the risk factors associated with early failure and the need for further surgery.


read more

Categories: News

Theoretical Tiger Chases Statistical Sheep To Probe Immune System Behavior

Science2.0 - 2 hours 55 min ago

Studying the way that solitary hunters such as tigers, bears or sea turtles chase down their prey turns out to be very useful in understanding the interaction between individual white blood cells and colonies of bacteria. Reporting their results in the Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, researchers in Europe have created a numerical model that explores this behaviour in more detail.

Using mathematical expressions, the group can examine the dynamics of a single predator hunting a herd of prey. The routine splits the hunter's motion into a diffusive part and a ballistic part, which represent the search for prey and then the direct chase that follows.


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Categories: Science2.0

Theoretical Tiger Chases Statistical Sheep To Probe Immune System Behavior

General - 2 hours 55 min ago

Studying the way that solitary hunters such as tigers, bears or sea turtles chase down their prey turns out to be very useful in understanding the interaction between individual white blood cells and colonies of bacteria. Reporting their results in the Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, researchers in Europe have created a numerical model that explores this behaviour in more detail.

Using mathematical expressions, the group can examine the dynamics of a single predator hunting a herd of prey. The routine splits the hunter's motion into a diffusive part and a ballistic part, which represent the search for prey and then the direct chase that follows.


read more

Categories: News

Exposure To Particulate Air Pollutants Associated With Numerous Cancers

Science2.0 - 2 hours 55 min ago

Researchers have found that long-term exposure to environmental pollutants was associated with increased risk of mortality for many types of cancer in an elderly Hong Kong population.

The study between the University of Birmingham and University of Hong Kong, published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, adds to growing concern around the health risks of prolonged exposure to ambient fine particulate matter.


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Categories: Science2.0

Exposure To Particulate Air Pollutants Associated With Numerous Cancers

General - 2 hours 55 min ago

Researchers have found that long-term exposure to environmental pollutants was associated with increased risk of mortality for many types of cancer in an elderly Hong Kong population.

The study between the University of Birmingham and University of Hong Kong, published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, adds to growing concern around the health risks of prolonged exposure to ambient fine particulate matter.


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Categories: News

Machines Can Learn To Respond To New Situations Like Human Beings Would

Science2.0 - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

How does the image-recognition technology in a self-driving car respond to a blurred shape suddenly appearing on the road? Researchers from KU Leuven, Belgium, have shown that machines can learn to respond to unfamiliar objects like human beings would.

Imagine heading home in your self-driving car. The rain is falling in torrents and visibility is poor. All of a sudden, a blurred shape appears on the road. What would you want the car to do? Should it hit the brakes, at the risk of causing the cars behind you to crash? Or should it just keep driving?


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Categories: Science2.0

Machines Can Learn To Respond To New Situations Like Human Beings Would

General - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

How does the image-recognition technology in a self-driving car respond to a blurred shape suddenly appearing on the road? Researchers from KU Leuven, Belgium, have shown that machines can learn to respond to unfamiliar objects like human beings would.

Imagine heading home in your self-driving car. The rain is falling in torrents and visibility is poor. All of a sudden, a blurred shape appears on the road. What would you want the car to do? Should it hit the brakes, at the risk of causing the cars behind you to crash? Or should it just keep driving?


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Categories: News

Want To Eat Better? Sorry, We're Closed

Science2.0 - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

COLUMBUS, Ohio - Getting more nutritious meals on the tables of low-income Americans could depend on the hours the stores in their neighborhoods keep.

Stores likely to sell fresh produce aren't open as long in areas with more socioeconomic struggles, and that problem is more pronounced in neighborhoods where many African Americans live, new research from The Ohio State University has found.

In affluent neighborhoods, 24-7 access to a wide array of foods is far more common.

"Let's say you're stringing together a few jobs and you get off work at 10 and your market closes at 8. It's a big problem," said researcher Jill Clark, an assistant professor in Ohio State's John Glenn College of Public Affairs.


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Categories: Science2.0

Want To Eat Better? Sorry, We're Closed

General - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

COLUMBUS, Ohio - Getting more nutritious meals on the tables of low-income Americans could depend on the hours the stores in their neighborhoods keep.

Stores likely to sell fresh produce aren't open as long in areas with more socioeconomic struggles, and that problem is more pronounced in neighborhoods where many African Americans live, new research from The Ohio State University has found.

In affluent neighborhoods, 24-7 access to a wide array of foods is far more common.

"Let's say you're stringing together a few jobs and you get off work at 10 and your market closes at 8. It's a big problem," said researcher Jill Clark, an assistant professor in Ohio State's John Glenn College of Public Affairs.


read more

Categories: News

New Gene Testing Technology Finds Cancer Risks 'hiding In Plain Sight'

Science2.0 - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

A research team led by an award-winning genomicist at Western University has developed a new method for identifying mutations and prioritizing variants in breast and ovarian cancer genes, which will not only reduce the number of possible variants for doctors to investigate, but also increase the number of patients that are properly diagnosed.

These potentially game-changing technologies, developed by Peter Rogan, PhD, students and his collaborators from Western's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, reveal gene variants that were missed by conventional genetic testing.


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Categories: Science2.0

New Gene Testing Technology Finds Cancer Risks 'hiding In Plain Sight'

General - April 28, 2016 - 10:24pm

A research team led by an award-winning genomicist at Western University has developed a new method for identifying mutations and prioritizing variants in breast and ovarian cancer genes, which will not only reduce the number of possible variants for doctors to investigate, but also increase the number of patients that are properly diagnosed.

These potentially game-changing technologies, developed by Peter Rogan, PhD, students and his collaborators from Western's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, reveal gene variants that were missed by conventional genetic testing.


read more

Categories: News

Screening Colonoscopies Not So Effective Says Recent Review

ACSH - April 28, 2016 - 6:08pm
Colonoscopies have been hailed as the hero for the decreasing the incidence and death of individuals from colon cancer. An essay, published in the NEJM, claims that other factors, not just colonoscopy, are contributing to the decline. Continue reading →
Categories: ACSH