Trees cool their environment and "heat islands" like Munich benefit from it. However, the degree of cooling depends greatly on the tree species and the local conditions. In a recent study, scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) compared two species of urban trees.

In an effort to improve the quality of biodiversity records, the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) use automated data processing to check individual data items. The records are provided to the ALA and GBIF by museums, herbaria and other biodiversity data sources.

Making tiny changes to existing diabetes treatments can alter how they interact with cells, and potentially make the medicines more effective.

The findings come from early-stage studies in both human cells and mice in which researchers tweaked the structure of an existing treatment for type 2 diabetes.

This tweak enabled the researchers, from Imperial College London, to hack into the 'traffic system' that shuttles drugs in and out of cells. This increased the effectiveness of the drug, and led to more insulin being released.

BUFFALO, N.Y. -- In the largest federally funded non-drug clinical trial for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), patients with the most severe and persistent symptoms achieved robust and sustained relief by learning to control symptoms with minimal clinician contact. Led by University at Buffalo researchers in collaboration with colleagues at New York University and Northwestern University, the study was published online before print in Gastroenterology.

One of the most vexing problems with spinal cord injuries is that the human body does not rebuild nerves once they have been damaged. Other animals, on the other hand, seem to have no problem repairing broken neurons.

A new study takes a comparative approach to pinpoint what happens differently in humans versus other animals to explain why they can successfully regenerate neurons while we instead form scar tissue. By learning from the similarities and differences, researchers hope to find new leads in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

Ever since scientists realized that humans evolved from a succession of primate ancestors, the public imagination has been focused on the inflection point when those ancestors switched from ape-like shuffling to walking upright as we do today. Scientists have long been focused on the question, too, because the answer is important to understanding how our ancestors lived, hunted and evolved.

Research into cancer can provide new insight into how this disease works and how it can be stopped. The Experimental Biology 2018 meeting (EB 2018) will showcase innovative research that could lead to new ways to treat and prevent cancer.

Potential treatment for pancreatic cancer

One of the most frustrating and debilitating complications of diabetes is the development of wounds on the foot or lower leg. Once they form, they can persist for months, leading to painful and dangerous infections.

New research uncovers the role of a particular protein in maintaining these wounds and suggests that reversing its effects could help aid wound healing in patients with diabetes.

A new microchip technology capable of optically transferring data could solve a severe bottleneck in current devices by speeding data transfer and reducing energy consumption by orders of magnitude, according to an article published in the April 19, 2018 issue of Nature.

Scientists seeking to bring fusion -- the power that drives the sun and stars -- down to Earth must first make the state of matter called plasma superhot enough to sustain fusion reactions. That calls for heating the plasma to many times the temperature of the core of the sun. In ITER, the international fusion facility being built in France to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power, the device will heat both the free electrons and the atomic nuclei -- or ions -- that make up the plasma. The question is, what will this heating mix