Earth

OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Dec.1, 2017 - Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have identified a common set of genes that enable different drought-resistant plants to survive in semi-arid conditions, which could play a significant role in bioengineering and creating energy crops that are tolerant to water deficits.

Researchers at NYU Langone Health's Perlmutter Cancer Center report that at least three kinds of bacteria in the mouths of Americans may heighten or lower their risk of developing esophageal cancer.

DENVER/November 30, 2017 - A new clinical trial funded in part by Morris Animal Foundation has resulted in a critical veterinary breakthrough - cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in remission following treatment with a novel antiviral drug. This fatal viral disease previously had no effective treatment or cure. Researchers from Kansas State University and the University of California, Davis, published their study results in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery.

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have shown that a new targeted treatment could benefit patients with certain pancreatic tumors by preventing spread of the cancer and protecting their heart from damage--a direct result of the tumor. Higher levels of serotonin among other tumor secretions can cause injury to the valves of the heart over time, leading to cardiac impairment--a condition referred to as cardiac carcinoid disease--in these patients.

Researchers have proposed an innovative new solution to dealing with dangerous icy roads in winter, putting forward an improved, safer method in a paper published today in Applied Spectroscopy Reviews.

Experts have detected a problematic substance known as 'hydrohalite', which forms on icy roads that have already been treated. Hydrohalite is normally left unremoved, as it does not respond to the conventional de-icing method of road surface salting. Once formed, repeated salting will not remove it.

Scientists have uncovered the ocean conditions that support a massive summertime bloom of algae that spans 16 percent of the global ocean. Known as the Great Calcite Belt, this dense group of a microscopic phytoplankton, coccolithophores, can be seen in satellite images as turquoise swirls in the dark blue water of the Southern Ocean.

It's no surprise that chemicals in smoke cause cancer, but a new study published in the Archives of Toxicology shows that some chemicals in cigarette smoke and industrial processes may be more dangerous than previously thought. Though most "low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons" (LMW PAHs) have not been shown to cause cancer alone, the study shows that in common combinations, these chemicals can help to spark the disease.

When the sun shines on horses and cows with black or dark-brown coats, polarised light is reflected -- a light to which horseflies (tabanidae) are both sensitive and attracted. White-coated animals are largely protected by the fact that their coats reflect unpolarised light. For these discoveries, which were published for the first time in 2010, the researchers were awarded the Ig Nobel Prize last year -- a prize awarded for research findings that are both entertaining and make people think.

Key processes in the body are controlled by the concentration of calcium in and around cells. A team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed the first sensor molecule that is able to visualize calcium in living animals with the help of a radiation-free imaging technique known as optoacoustics. The method does not require the cells to be genetically modified and involves no radiation exposure.

Quantum secret communication realizes secure information transmission based on principles of quantum mechanism, which is an important field in quantum information sciences and technologies. At present, the most developed quantum secret communication schemes are based on quantum key distribution. In these schemes, the quantum function is limited to realize secret key generation and transmission, while the information transmission still depends on classical communication technologies. These schemes developed rapidly in recent years, which are mature enough to start commercial applications.