Culture

Adolescents and young adults are encouraged to get involved in their communities through voting, volunteering, or becoming active in a cause. A new study sought to determine whether civic engagement during adolescence and young adulthood promotes better health, education, and income over the course of adulthood. The study found a pattern of positive associations of voting and volunteering with these important aspects of adult development, but a mix of positive and negative outcomes in adulthood for activism as a form of civic engagement.

Scientists from Siberian Federal University (SFU) together with their colleagues from the Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kirensky Institute of Physics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences used a new method for synthesizing iron-dysprosium garnet. Magnetic materials of this class are used in microwave and magnetic photon equipment. Iron-dysprosium garnet is understudied and may have previously unknown properties.

They can be as small as a grain of salt, but tiny crystals that form deep in volcanoes may be the key for advance warnings before volcanic eruptions.

University of Queensland vulcanologist Dr Teresa Ubide said the research provided new information that could lead to more effective evacuations and warning communications.

"This could signal good news for the almost one in 10 people around the world who live within 100km of an active volcano," she said.

Neuron-like cells created from a readily available cell line have allowed researchers to investigate how the human brain makes a metabolic building block essential for the survival of all living organisms. A team led by researchers from Penn State optimized a new method to create the synthetic neurons, which they used to investigate a core enzyme involved in the synthesis of purines -- a component of DNA that is involved in many other cellular and metabolic processes -- and how the enzyme might change during infection by herpes simplex virus.

GAINESVILLE, Fla. --- A new international analysis of marine fossils shows that warming of the polar oceans during the Eocene, a greenhouse period that provides a glimpse of Earth's potential future climate, was greater than previously thought.

A decent wheat harvest requires robust wheat. However, wheat crops are often infected by fun-gal diseases such as powdery mildew. For several years now, UZH researchers have been inves-tigating a wheat gene that confers resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici). The gene, called the Pm3 resistance gene, exists in different variations, so called alleles. In pre-vious studies, plant researcher Beat Keller and his team demonstrated that single Pm3 alleles are able to confer resistance against powdery mildew fungi.

People with prosthetic arms or hands do not experience the "size-weight illusion" as strongly as other people, new research shows.

The size-weight illusion, which affects about 98 per cent of people, causes them to experience smaller objects as feeling heavier than larger objects of the same weight.

The study - led by the University of Exeter and the University of Strathclyde - compared the perception of people using their anatomical hands with that of amputees using prosthetic limbs.

Researchers from the University of Valladolid (Spain) have created a computer model based on neural networks which provides in which Spanish provinces cases of corruption can appear with greater probability, as well as the conditions that favor their appearance. This alert system confirms that the probabilities increase when the same party stays in government more years.

The vaccines used by commercial fish farmers are not protecting fish from disease, according to a new study.

The study was compiled by researchers at the University of Waterloo, the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso and Chile's University of Valparaiso. It showed vaccinated fish tend to show more symptoms when contracting diseases, with the health impacts and ultimately deaths occurring as if they'd never received a vaccine.

Latest research shows a lack of overarching coordination or the involvement of any "kingpin"-style monopolies in the criminal operations illegally transporting people from the Horn of Africa into Northern Europe via Libya.

Instead, transnational smuggling routes were found to be highly segmented: each stage a competitive marketplace of "independent and autonomous" smugglers - as well as militias and kidnappers - that must be negotiated by migrants fighting for a life beyond the Mediterranean Sea.