Body

Buprenorphine (BUP) is approved for the treatment of opioid addiction. The current dosing regimen of BUP in pregnant women is based on recommendations designed for non-pregnant adults, but physiological changes during pregnancy may alter BUP exposure and efficacy. As described in a British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study, researchers have developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that predicts changes in BUP exposure at different stages of pregnancy.

Autologous fat transfer, also known as "lipofilling", is a minimally invasive procedure in which the plastic surgeon uses the patient's own fat obtained by liposuction to perform breast reconstruction.

Two drugs that are commonly used off-label in the treatment of male infertility are clomiphene citrate (CC) and anastrozole (AZ); however, data are lacking on the use of combination CC+AZ therapy. A new BJU International study found that combination CC+AZ therapy is safe and effective for patients with elevated estradiol or a low testosterone/estradiol ratio.

Short and long daily sleep duration were risk factors for dementia and premature death in a study of Japanese adults aged 60 years and older. The findings are published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

One of the main risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common cancer worldwide, is solar ultraviolet radiation. A new Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology study has found that different outdoor professions carry different risks for NMSC.

In a study published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research, investigators have identified urinary markers that differentiate total hip replacement patients who eventually develop bone tissue destruction, or osteolysis, from patients who do not.

For the study, researchers used a repository of 24-hour urine samples collected prior to surgery and annually thereafter in 26 patients, 16 who developed osteolysis and 10 who did not.

Exposure to tobacco smoke prenatally and postnatally was associated with hearing impairment in a Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology study of young children in Japan.

The modelled data on overall survival of the statistical evaluation of the impact of crossover on the ADMYRE study were presented.

Of the 84 patients treated in the comparator arm (dexamethasone as a single agent), 44% received the combination with plitidepsin after progression.

After analyzing the impact of crossover, the registered overall survival with plitidepsin was 11.6 months against the 6.4 months of dexamethasone alone.

New findings are now being presented on possible mechanisms behind gender differences in the occurrence of rheumatism and other autoimmune diseases. The study, published in Nature Communications, can be of significance for the future treatment of diseases.

"It's very important to understand what causes these diseases to be so much more common among women," says Asa Tivesten, professor of medicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden, a chief physician and one of the authors of the study. "In this way, we can eventually provide better treatment for the diseases."

In a viral haemorrhagic disease where up to 40% of people developing it die, it is remarkable that doctors still do not agree whether the only recognised treatment, an antiviral drug called ribavirin, makes a difference. In a new Cochrane Review a team of authors at LSTM, along with colleagues in London, The Philippines and in Greece, evaluated the evidence to assess the effectiveness of treating Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF).