Body

TORONTO-(May 5, 2018)-The volume of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and calories consumed by very vulnerable preemies significantly contributes to increased brain volume and white matter development, however additional research is needed to determine specific nutritional approaches that best support these infants' developing brains, according to research to be presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2018 annual meeting.

TORONTO-(May 5, 2018) - Erythropoietin (EPO) helps to protect and repair vulnerable brains though it remains a mystery how the anemia drug does so. Genetic analyses conducted by a multi-institutional research team finds that EPO may work its neuroprotective magic by modifying genes essential for regulating growth and development of nervous tissue as well as genes that respond to inflammation and hypoxia. Findings from the pilot study will be presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies 2018 annual meeting.

TORONTO-(May 5, 2018)-Just as a runner steadily builds up endurance in order to peak at just the right time, the placenta carefully calibrates how much of the hormone allopregnanolone (ALLO) it produces during pregnancy. The placenta ramps up ALLO production in the second trimester of pregnancy and achieves peak production just as fetuses approach full term, according to multi-institutional research presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2018 annual meeting.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have combined derivatives of two surplus materials--wood pulp and dried-up pieces of an invasive exotic pest--to form a new composite material that is flexible, sustainable, nontoxic and UV light-reflective.

Cold Spring Harbor, NY - During a stroke or an epileptic seizure, neurons in affected parts of the brain fire at an abnormally rapid rate. One byproduct of this condition is that the pH of the brain drops markedly, rendering the local environment inhospitably acidic.

Using a powerful microscopy method called cryo-EM, biologists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have discovered how one key element of brain physiology, a docking port for excitatory neurotransmitters called the NMDA receptor, is able to function in this hostile environment.

Philadelphia, May 4, 2018 - Following the landmark SPRINT trial, there is a growing body of evidence for reducing systolic blood pressure targets, resulting in the development of new US guidelines. However, this has led to many questions about the impact of such fundamental changes in blood pressure management, and whether they should be implemented in other constituencies. Two new studies published in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology assess the benefits and costs of incorporating these more aggressive goals into clinical practice.

Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are relatively new anti-cancer drugs. They consist of an antibody to which a cell-killing molecule (chemotherapy) is attached. Antibodies can recognize and bind to certain receptors (the 'hands' on the outside of a cell) in a very targeted way. The antibody in an ADC is designed to adhere exclusively to receptors that are characteristic of a tumor cell. The chemotherapy drug is not released until the receptor has brought the entire structure into the cell, and then the chemotherapy drug can do its job.

MADISON - New research out of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has, for the first time, detected prions responsible for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in samples taken from sites where deer congregate.

Scientists searched for prions at mineral licks -- areas where deer seek out essential nutrients and minerals -- in the CWD endemic area across south-central Wisconsin. Out of 11 sites, nine had detectable levels of the disease-causing misfolded proteins. Prions were found both in soil and in water from the sites, as well as in nearby fecal samples from one site.

Women who eat less fruit and more fast food take longer to get pregnant and are less likely to conceive within a year, according to a study by researchers at the University of Adelaide's Robinson Research Institute.

The study published today (Friday 4 May) in Human Reproduction, one of the world's leading reproductive medicine journals, asked 5598 women in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Ireland about their diet. The women, who had not had a baby before, were interviewed by research midwives during their first antenatal visit.

URBANA, Ill. - Diets rich in nuts, such as walnuts, have been shown to play a role in heart health and in reducing colorectal cancer. According to a new study from the University of Illinois, the way walnuts impact the gut microbiome--the collection of trillions of microbes or bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract--may be behind some of those health benefits.