Body

Patients with an inherited form of colon cancer harbor two bacterial species that collaborate to encourage development of the disease, and the same species have been found in people who develop a sporadic form of colon cancer, a study led by a Johns Hopkins Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy research team finds. A second study in mice published concurrently by the same researchers shows a possible mechanism behind how one of these species spurs a specific type of immune response, promoting--instead of inhibiting--the formation of malignant tumors.

A commonly-prescribed multiple sclerosis (MS) infusion medication linked to a rare but serious side effect is safer to use when dosing intervals are extended, according to a new study led by MS specialists NYU Langone Health.

As part of a breast-cancer diagnosis, doctors analyze the tumor to determine which therapies might best attack the malignancy. But for patients whose cancer is triple-negative -- that is, lacking receptors for estrogen, progesterone and Her2 -- the options for treatment dwindle. Triple-negative cancers, or TNBC, also tend to be more aggressive than other cancer subtypes.

On the occasion of International Green Week, the BfR is presenting the aims, procedure and results of the project today at the BfR Kitchen Hygiene forum in the CityCube Berlin. "The results show that important hygiene measures are often neglected in cooking shows, with one hygiene error being observed every 50 seconds on average," says BfR President Professor Dr. Dr. Andreas Hensel. The good news is that if kitchen hygiene is demonstrated properly, TV cooking shows can also take on a role model function by promoting kitchen hygiene measures to prevent foodborne infections.

For a tumour to grow, it must develop blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen. Preventing tumour vascularization is therefore an interesting anti-tumour therapy that has been explored over the last ten years. But how to be truly effective? By identifying two cytokines, key factors in the recruitment of blood cells essential to the formation of new blood vessels, and above all by deciphering how these factors interact simultaneously with blood vessels, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) are highlighting an additional way of controlling tumour progression.

Personality type may be linked to a heightened risk of being bitten by a dog, with people of a more anxious disposition more likely to be nipped, suggests research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

And the actual number of dog bites may be nearly three times higher than hospital records indicate, the findings show.

Exercising regularly before surgery for lung cancer halves the complication rate afterwards, finds a synthesis of the available published evidence in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

And it reduces length of hospital stay for these patients by almost three days, the findings show.

Several studies have suggested that an exercise programme undertaken before surgery might help produce better outcomes.

The most comprehensive genetic study of malaria parasites in Southeast Asia has shown that resistance to antimalarial drugs was under-reported for years in Cambodia. Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators have shown that the parasites developed multidrug resistance to first-line treatments extremely rapidly. They found that one main resistant strain had spread aggressively in the five years before clinical resistance was reported. Delays in detecting the spread of resistance could threaten global efforts to eliminate malaria.

Pregnant women who take the pain killer ibuprofen in the first 24 weeks of their pregnancy may be reducing the store of eggs in the ovaries of their daughters.

Researchers have found the first evidence in human ovarian tissue that exposure to ibuprofen during the crucial first three months of foetal development results in a "dramatic loss" of the germ cells that go into making the follicles from which female eggs develop. The germ cells either died or failed to grow and multiply at the usual rate.

A landmark study has narrowed down the genes that best predict long term kidney transplant success, to a small stretch of DNA.

The first study of its kind to gather transplant data from across the UK and Ireland found patients have the best chance of long term survival where the donor and recipient have genetic matches in a section of DNA known as the HLA locus. This finding could help to personalise treatment and reduce costs to the NHS as patients need less treatment or spend less time in hospital.