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How to build a better railway -- in (almost) every cell in your body

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
New work from the University of Warwick shows how a microscopic 'railway' system in our cells can optimise its structure to better suit bodies' needs.
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The changing voices of North Atlantic right whales

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Researchers have found that right whale calls, much like human voices, change as individuals age. In a study recently published in Animal Behaviour, scientists examined 986 high-quality calls from 49 individual North Atlantic right whales of known ages spanning from 1 month to 37 years. Calls made by whales younger than 1 year were shorter and less structured than adult sounds. As the animals matured their calls became more clear, with better defined structure and longer call durations.
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A milestone in petahertz electronics

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
In a semiconductor, electrons can be excited by absorbing laser light. Advances during the past decade enabled measuring this fundamental physical mechanism on timescales below a femtosecond (10^-15 s). Now physicists at ETH Zurich for the first time resolved the response of electrons in gallium arsenide at the attosecond (10^-18 s) timescale, and gained unexpected insights for future ultrafast opto-electronic devices with operation frequencies in the petahertz regime.
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SLU researchers discover structure of protein associated with inflammation, Parkinson's

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
The findings open the door to developing new treatments for a wide range of illnesses, from heart disease, diabetes and cancer to neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease.
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What if we could predict when an athlete was going to be injured?

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Athletic performance isn't the only casualty of sports injuries. These injuries pose economic burdens on athletes and their families and can have long-lasting effects on an athlete's quality of life. To help reduce the risk of injury, researchers at the University of Tennessee Chattanooga have developed a framework that measures an athlete's risk of injury using Internet of Things (IoT) technology.
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Gerontologists tackle social isolation, increasingly a public health concern

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Social connectivity and meaningful social engagement must be promoted as integral components of healthy aging, according to a new collection of articles in the latest issue of Public Policy & Aging Report (PP&AR) from The Gerontological Society of America (GSA). Several authors also detail a series of initiatives that, if replicated, hold promise for decreasing isolation among older adults.
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Genetic heart diseases cause fewer SIDS deaths than previously thought, study finds

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Genetic mutations linked to heart disease have been considered a leading cause of sudden infant death syndrome, but a new study by Mayo Clinic, British and Danish researchers finds they are to blame for far fewer SIDS deaths than previously thought. The findings are opening new lines of inquiry into possible causes of the syndrome and may help prevent unnecessary genetic testing of surviving family members. The study results appear in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
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CRISPR helps find new genetic suspects behind ALS/FTD

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
NIH-funded researchers used the gene editing tool CRISPR to rapidly identify genes in the human genome that might modify the severity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) caused by mutations in a gene called C9orf72. The results of the search uncovered a new set of genes that may hasten neuron death during the disease.
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Stroke research: 32 hits

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Researchers have analyzed genetic data from half a million subjects in a search to identify the underlying causes of stroke, a complex vascular disease. Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich led the the huge collaborative Project.
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Researchers identify key step in viral replication

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Pitt and UPMC researchers showed how a common virus hijacks a host cell's protein to assemble new viruses.
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Worldwide study triples number of known genetic risk factors for stroke

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
The largest genetic study of stroke to date triples the number of known genetic risk factors for the disease and also should enable researchers to find novel treatments for dementia. The study team included Sudha Seshadri, M.D., of the Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's & Neurodegenerative Diseases at UT Health San Antonio.
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Large-scale genetic study provides new insight into the causes of stroke

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
The largest genetic study of stroke so far has identified 22 new genetic risk factors, tripling the number of gene regions known to affect stroke risk.
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Moderate Facebook use promotes happiness in adults with Autism spectrum disorder

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a new study has shown that those who use Facebook, in moderation, are happier than those who do not.
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Great Recession still plagues workers with lower lifetime wages

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
For displaced workers in Washington state during the Great Recession, earnings dropped suddenly and had still not fully recovered five years later, according to a working paper by labor economists at Princeton University, Michigan State University and the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
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New link between obesity and body temperature

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Reduced ability to maintain body temperature in colder environments may contribute to the development of obesity in adulthood, suggests a new study in mice published in JNeurosci.
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Will run for meth

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
The brain regions activated in anticipation of methamphetamine are identified in a noninvasive study of male mice published in eNeuro.
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A game changer: Metagenomic clustering powered by supercomputers

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Berkeley Lab and Joint Genome Institute researchers took one of the most popular clustering approaches in modern biology -- Markov Clustering algorithm -- and modified it to run efficiently and at scale on supercomputers. Their algorithm achieved a previously impossible feat: clustering a 70 million node and 68 billion edge biological network in hours.
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Mexico well ahead of US in LGBT rights

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Caroline Beer has spent her career researching comparative data between Latin American countries and the United States that often debunks false stereotypes. Her latest study showing Mexico as more progressive than the US when it comes to LGBT rights, especially in the recognition of same-sex relationships, is no exception.
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Children's Colorado experts find surgery promising option for severely obese adolescents

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
When a bariatric surgeon and an endocrinologist specializing in diabetes examined the effectiveness of medical versus surgical management of type 2 diabetes in adolescents, the results of the surgical intervention proved to be promising.
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Scientists find treasure trove of 110 genes linked to breast cancer

Eurekalert - Mar 12 2018 - 00:03
Scientists have linked 110 genes to an increased risk of breast cancer in the most comprehensive study ever to unpick the genetics of the disease.Their study used a pioneering genetic technique to analyse maps of DNA regions linked to an inherited risk of breast cancer and identify the actual genes involved in raising a woman's risk.Researchers also linked 32 of the new genes to the length of time women survived breast cancer.
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