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The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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Timothy Ray Brown, cured of HIV, rallies public to support research funding

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
In the 10th anniversary year since a bone marrow stem cell transplant cured Timothy Ray Brown of his HIV infection, despite disappointment over decreasing public desire to find a cure for HIV, Timothy Ray Brown remains optimistic that the scientific and medical communities can and will achieve this if properly funded.
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Hepatitis therapy: Kupffer cells adjust the balance between pathogen control and hepatocyte regenera

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Scientists from TWINCORE have now published new insights on the processes involved in liver inflammation in the Journal of Hepatology: Type I interferons, on the one hand, limit viral replication and thereby help the immune cells to control the viral pathogen. On the other hand, type I interferons delay the regeneration of immune cells, which are important to adjust and maintain the immune balance within the liver during acute inflammation.
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Lessons in nature boost classroom engagement afterward, researchers report

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Third-graders who spend a class session in a natural outdoor setting are more engaged and less distracted in their regular classroom afterward than when they remain indoors, scientists found in a new study. The effect was large and occurred week after week, regardless of teacher expectations.
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Review examines the pros and cons of surgery to reduce the risk of cancer

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Genetic testing is commonplace for many inheritable cancer syndromes, and with that comes the knowledge of being a gene carrier for some patients. Many guidelines recommend that gene carriers take certain steps, such as surgery, to reduce their risk of developing cancer. A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) review explores the quality-of-life consequences of genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery.
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New research could significantly accelerate drug discovery

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Many drugs work by inhibiting protein enzymes associated with a particular disease. Unfortunately, the same drugs can inhibit protein enzymes unrelated to the disease, resulting in harmful side effects. Computational biologists have a way to identify the features that distinguish one enzyme from similar enzymes. This research has the potential to significantly accelerate drug discovery, allowing scientists to develop more effective drugs, more quickly.
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California sea lion population rebounded to new highs

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
California sea lions have fully rebounded under the protection of the Marine Mammal Protection Act, with their population on the West Coast reaching carrying capacity in 2008 before unusually warm ocean conditions reduced their numbers, according to the first comprehensive population assessment of the species.
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Patient-derived organoids may help personalize the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) review highlights the potential of 3-D organoid models derived from patient cells to help personalize therapy for individuals with gastrointestinal cancers.
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Weight flux alters molecular profile, Stanford-led study finds

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
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Mantis shrimp size each other up before ceding a fight

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
To a mantis shrimp, walking away from a fight doesn't mean being a wimp. It means recognizing who they're up against and knowing when to bail rather than drag out a doomed battle, Duke University researchers say. Mantis shrimp use sparring matches to decide when to fight and when to fold, finds a study published Jan. 17 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
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Ultra-thin memory storage device paves way for more powerful computing

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
A team of electrical engineers at The University of Texas at Austin, in collaboration with Peking University scientists, has developed the thinnest memory storage device with dense memory capacity, paving the way for faster, smaller and smarter computer chips for everything from consumer electronics to big data to brain-inspired computing.
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Study finds minority trainees are up, but not minority faculty

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Despite increasing numbers of underrepresented minority (URM) trainees in the biomedical sciences, there is a persistent shortage of URM faculty who are involved in basic biomedical research at medical schools. Vanderbilt investigators examined the entire training pathway of potential faculty candidates to identify points of greatest loss of URM trainees. They report Jan. 16 in PLOS ONE two key points of loss: during undergraduate education and in transition from postdoctoral fellowship to tenure-track faculty.
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Recording a thought's fleeting trip through the brain

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Recording brain activity via electrodes placed directly on the cortical surface (ECoG) provides much clearer views of thinking activity and how the prefrontal cortex coordinates the brain's response to a perception. With the help of 16 epilepsy patients, UC Berkeley neuroscientists tracked the brain's activity as it detects, interprets, settles on a response and activates motor areas to respond. The brain prepares to respond very early, even before we know how we will respond.
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What can be done to prevent alcohol-impaired driving fatalaties?

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) outlines a framework for preventing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities.
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Fresh approach to TB vaccine offers better protection

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
A unique platform that resulted in a promising HIV vaccine has also led to a new, highly effective vaccine against tuberculosis that is moving toward testing in humans. The new vaccine completely protected 41 percent and reduced overall TB disease by 68 percent in vaccinated rhesus macaques, according to a study published as an Advanced Online Publication of Nature Medicine.
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Accelerating progress to reduce alcohol-impaired driving fatalities

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Despite progress in recent decades, more than 10,000 alcohol-impaired driving fatalities occur each year in the US. To address this persistent problem, stakeholders -- from transportation systems to alcohol retailers to law enforcement -- should work together to implement policies and systems to eliminate these preventable deaths, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
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To maximize sugarcane harvesting, use the right blade

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
You wouldn't use the same knife to cut through a thick steak as you would to slice an angel food cake, right? Although that may be a ridiculous comparison, the same principle holds true when harvesting various crops. One blade doesn't slice all. Researchers at the University of Illinois tested four blades to find the one that most efficiently cuts sugarcane.
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Prebiotics in infant formula could improve learning and memory and alter brain chemistry

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Among other benefits, breast milk contains natural sources of prebiotics: small, indigestible fiber molecules that promote the growth of good bacteria in the baby's gut. Yet for many families, breastfeeding is difficult or impossible. Fortunately, modern infant formulas are getting closer to the real thing with the help of University of Illinois researchers.
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Symptoms of depression before undergoing heart procedure and outcomes

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Symptoms of depression were common among older adults undergoing a procedure to replace a damaged aortic valve of the heart, and having those symptoms was associated with a higher rate of death up to one year later.
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Reducing sessions of trauma-focused psychotherapy does not affect effectiveness

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients treated with as few as five sessions of trauma-focused psychotherapy find it equally effective as receiving 12 sessions.
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Scientists shed light on a key molecular mechanism of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
An international team of researchers led by prof. Savvas Savvides (VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) has unraveled a crucial aspect of the molecular basis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Focusing on the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-23 they discovered that its pro-inflammatory activity, which underlies a wide range of inflammatory diseases, critically depends on structural activation of the cytokine by its receptor, IL-23R.
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