An international team of researchers, together with participation from the University of Bonn, has investigated a stunning fossil finding from the Cretaceous period. The 125-million-year-old mouse- to rat-sized mammal is preserved so well that even detailed analyses of its fur are possible. An astounding finding: The animal may have suffered from a fungal infection of the hair which also strikes mammals nowadays. The scientists are publishing their results in the journal Nature.
Researchers from the University of East Anglia are calling for medical trial data to be kept in national repositories.
A BMJ study published today reveals how a series of barriers stopped researchers from reviewing the effects of heart failure drugs such as beta blockers on patients.
Now they are calling for greater transparency in research and recommend that access to data should be a mandatory requirement of funding.
They warn that the risks of not doing so, could lead to "erroneous clinical decisions".
Want to hit a fastball like the New York Mets do? It won't surprise you much to learn that baseball players don't think much about hitting the ball - much of it comes from trained muscle memory and a great deal of visual ocularity.
The latest episode of “It’s Okay to Be Smart” outlines the combination of practice, strength, brainpower, and good eyesight that helps players predict the correct time to swing the bat. Fortunately none of those things will make you field the ball like David Murphy, even if you hit like him.
Human twin embryos created in the laboratory by splitting single embryos into two using a common method known as blastomere biopsy may be unsuitable both for IVF and for research purposes, according to a new study.
In the UK, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Code of Practice says that clinics should not be producing embryos for IVF treatment by embryo splitting, such genetically identical embryos should be used only for research purposes. However, in the US the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine has not indicated any major ethical objections to placing two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome into the uterus.
MONTRÉAL (October 19, 2015)- Researchers from Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, formed a multidisciplinary sepsis and shock response team (SSRT) to help alert emergency department providers when these disorders are suspected. An automated electronic sepsis alarm for early recognition, followed by standardized multidisciplinary management of patients with suspected sepsis or shock with SSRT, improved the compliance with standard care measures and overall mortality.
NEW YORK, NY -- A new and comprehensive study by investigators at the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center has found that celiac patients are at no increased risk for dementia before or after their diagnosis of celiac disease.
"Patients coming to our center have long described 'brain fog,' and it appears that gluten can cause cognitive effects in some individuals with and without celiac disease," said Peter Green, MD, the Phyllis and Ivan Seidenberg Professor of Medicine at Columbia University and the director of the Celiac Disease Center. "However, we didn't know if these effects have long-term consequences in the form of increased risk of dementia."
An international team have used cutting edge genomic methods to uncover key biological insights that help explain the protective effects of the world's most advanced malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S).
Applying highly sensitive sequencing technology to more patient samples than previously tested, the team was able to determine that genetic variation in the protein targeted by RTS,S influences the vaccine's ability to ward off malaria in young children.
A new crime scene identification technique for fingerprint detection and analysis adds a drop of liquid containing crystals to surfaces, which means investigators using a UV light are able to see invisible fingerprints "glow" in about 30 seconds.
The strong luminescent effect creates greater contrast between the latent print and surface enabling higher resolution images to be taken for easier and more precise analyses.
Sepsis is an inflammatory response to infection that's known to develop in hospital settings and can turn deadly when it's not discovered early on.
In a new study, a hospital surveillance program focusing on reducing the risks of sepsis, known as the two-stage Clinical Decision Support (CDS) system, was found to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes, such as death and hospice discharge for sepsis patients, by 30% over the course of one year.
Researchers say they have added to evidence that a shell-shaped region in the center of the mammalian brain, known as the thalamic reticular nucleus or TRN, is likely responsible for the ability to routinely and seamlessly multitask.
The process, they suggest, is done by individual TRN neurons that act like a "switchboard," continuously filtering sensory information and shifting more or less attention onto one sense -- like sight -- while relatively blocking out distracting information from other senses, including sound.
The Death Star of the movie Star Wars may be fictional, but planetary destruction is real. Astronomers announced today that they have spotted a large, rocky object disintegrating in its death spiral around a distant white dwarf star. The discovery also confirms a long-standing theory behind the source of white dwarf "pollution" by metals.
"This is something no human has seen before," says lead author Andrew Vanderburg of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "We're watching a solar system get destroyed."
When a star comes too close to a black hole, the intense gravity of the black hole results in tidal forces that can rip the star apart. In these events, called tidal disruptions, some of the stellar debris is flung outward at high speeds, while the rest falls toward the black hole. This causes a distinct X-ray flare that can last for years.
A team of astronomers has observed a tidal disruption event in a galaxy that lies about 290 million light years from Earth, the closest tidal disruption discovered in about a decade.
In 1939, a Russian engineer proposed a "flying submarine" -- a vehicle that can seamlessly transition from air to water and back again. While it may sound like something out of a James Bond film, engineers have been trying to design functional aerial-aquatic vehicles for decades with little success. Now, engineers may be one step closer to the elusive flying submarine.
The biggest challenge is conflicting design requirements: aerial vehicles require large airfoils like wings or sails to generate lift while underwater vehicles need to minimize surface area to reduce drag.
Vaccines help prevent disease by inducing immunological memory, the ability of immune cells to remember and respond more quickly when re-exposed to the same pathogen. While certain phases of the pathway are well understood, little is known about the role of helper T cells, a "master orchestrator" of the immune response that send signals to activate the immune system.
A study has identified molecular mechanisms that control an immune cell's ability to remember. They found that in helper T (CD4+) cells, the proteins Oct1 and OCA-B work together to put immune response genes on standby so that they are easily activated when the body is re-exposed to a pathogen.
Women with particularly aggressive forms of breast cancer could be identified by a test that predicts whether the disease is likely to spread to the brain.
An analysis of almost 4,000 patients with breast cancer found that testing for high activity in a particular gene called alpha beta (αB)-crystallin could pick out women who were at greater risk of developing secondary brain tumors compared to women who tested negative.
A team including scientists at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, found that women whose breast cancer had begun to spread and who tested positive in the αB-crystallin test were three times more likely to have disease that spread to the brain than those who tested negative.
Chemical signaling among social insects, such as bees, ants and wasps, is more complex than previously thought, according to researchers whose results refute the idea that a single group of chemicals controls reproduction across numerous species.
Processing fabric for the latest fashions and other textile-based products today requires thousands of chemicals, some of which are toxic and cause 20 percent of the world's water pollution. To reduce its environmental footprint, the textile industry is making changes, designing safer chemicals and turning to nature to find replacements to potentially harmful compounds, according to an article in Chemical&Engineering News.
Girls from families with a history of breast cancer, or genetic mutations that increase the risk of a breast cancer diagnosis, seem to adjust just as well as other girls when it comes to general anxiety, depression and overall psychosocial adjustment, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. However, the study also found that girls from at-risk families tend to worry more about breast cancer, particularly when their mothers have the same worries.
Botulinum toxin, commonly known as Botox, is produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria and was once known for disease but is now known for making Hollywood actresses look plastic. However, it may also prevent irregular heart rhythms when injected into fat surrounding the heart after bypass surgery, according to research in Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology.
When a small amount of Botox is injected into a muscle, it blocks nerve signals that tell muscles to contract. Atrial fibrillation (also called AFib or AF) is a quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.