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Coral reefs at risk of losing building material by end of century

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
A new study suggests that by 2050, most coral reefs around the world are at risk of experiencing constant depletion of one of their building blocks - calcium carbonate sediments.
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More than half the world's ocean are commercially fished

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
More than half of the world's oceans are exposed to industrial fishing activities, a new study, conducted at unprecedented scale, reveals. Peak fishing activity, the study goes on to report, is more affected by cultural and political events such as holidays and closures than by changes in economic factors, or environmental ones.
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Cave art and painted shells suggest neanderthals were artists, understood symbolism

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Neanderthals were artists, according to a new study in Science, which reveals that the oldest cave art found in Europe predates early modern humans by at least 20,000 years, and so must have had Neanderthal origin.
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Research into the family tree of today's horses sheds new light on the origins of the species

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
The earliest known domesticated horses are not at the root of today's modern breed's family tree, as had previously been thought, new research has shown.
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Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Chemists from the University of Würzburg have developed a boron-based molecule capable of binding nitrogen without assistance from a transition metal. This might be the first step towards the energy-saving production of fertilizers.
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DNA gets away: Scientists catch the rogue molecule that can trigger autoimmunity

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
A research team has discovered the process -- and filmed the actual moment -- that can change the body's response to a dying cell. Importantly, what they call the 'Great Escape' moment may one day prove to be the crucial trigger for autoimmune diseases like arthritis.
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Surprising new study redraws family tree of domesticated and 'wild' horses

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Research published in Science today overturns a long-held assumption that Przewalski's horses, native to the Eurasian steppes, are the last wild horse species on Earth
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Unsaddling old theory on origin of horses

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Botai horses were tamed in Kazakhstan 5,500 years ago and thought to be the ancestors of today's domesticated horses . . . until a team led by researchers from the CNRS and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier sequenced their genome. Their findings published on Feb. 22, 2018 in Science are startling: these equids are the progenitors not of the modern domesticated horse, but rather of Przewalski's horses--previously presumed wild!
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Neanderthals were artistic like modern humans, study indicates

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Scientists have found the first major evidence that Neanderthals, rather than modern humans, created the world's oldest known cave paintings -- suggesting they may have had an artistic sense similar to our own.
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Neanderthals thought like we do

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Using Uranium-Thorium dating an international team of researchers co-directed by Dirk Hoffmann of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, demonstrates that more than 115,000 years ago Neanderthals produced symbolic objects, and that they created cave art more than 20,000 years before modern humans first arrived in Europe. The researchers conclude that our cousins' cognitive abilities were equivalent to our own.
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Loops, loops, and more loops: This is how your DNA gets organized

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
A living cell is able to neatly package a big jumble of DNA into chromosomes while preparing for cell division. For over a century, scientists have been puzzled for decades on how the process works. Researchers now managed for the first time to isolate and film the process, and witnessed -- in real time -- how a single protein complex called condensin reels in DNA to extrude a loop.
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Stagnation in the South Pacific

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
A team led by geochemist Dr. Katharina Pahnke from Oldenburg has discovered important evidence that the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at the end of the last ice age was triggered by changes in the Antarctic Ocean.
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In living color: seeing cells from outside the body with synthetic bioluminescence

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Glowing creatures like fireflies and jellyfish are captivating to look at but also a boon for science, as their bioluminescent molecules contribute to visualizing a host of biological processes. Now, scientists in Japan have supercharged these molecules, making them hundreds of times brighter in deep tissues and allowing for imaging of cells from outside the body. The bioengineered light source was used to track cancer cells in mice and brain-cell activity in monkeys, but its applications extend beyond the lab.
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Descriptive phrases for how often food should be eaten helps preschoolers better understand healthy eating

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Preschool is a critical period for children to begin to make their own dietary decisions to develop life-long healthy eating habits. A new study published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior found that preschoolers who learned how to classify food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose healthy food as a snack.
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With computation, researchers identify promising solid oxide fuel cell materials

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Using advanced computational methods, University of Wisconsin-Madison materials scientists have discovered new materials that could bring widespread commercial use of solid oxide fuel cells closer to reality.
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New insights on the neurobiology of dying

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
A new Annals of Neurology study provides insight into the neurobiology of dying. For the study, investigators performed continuous patient monitoring following Do Not Resuscitate - Comfort Care orders in patients with devastating brain injury to investigate the mechanisms and timing of events in the brain and the circulation during the dying process.
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When every fish counts

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
Genetic analysis by UC Davis showed about one-third of endangered delta smelt were misidentified in surveys of the Yolo Bypass. Their study found that genetic tools can be a powerful complement to visual identification of endangered fish.
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Modification of CRISPR guide RNA structure prevents immune response in target cells

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
CRISPR-mediated genome editing has become a powerful tool for modeling of disease in various organisms and is being developed for clinical applications. Preassembled Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) composed of the recombinant Cas9 protein and in vitrotranscribed (IVT) guide RNA complexes can be delivered into cells without risk of foreign DNA integration into the host genome and with fewer off-target effects. However, in a study published today in Genome Research, scientists discovered in vitro-transcribed gRNAs, containing a 5' triphosphate (5'ppp) moiety, activate the immune response in human cells leading to cell death.
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Weather should remain predictable despite climate change

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
New research from the University of Missouri suggests that even as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere drive the climate toward warmer temperatures, the weather will remain predictable.
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Extinct lakes of the American desert west

Eurekalert - Feb 22 2018 - 00:02
The vestiges of lakes long extinct dot the landscape of the American desert west. These fossilized landforms provide clues of how dynamic climate has been over the past few million years.
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