Johns Hopkins scientists invent multifunctional antibody-ligand traps (Y-traps), a new class of cancer immunotherapeutics. They develop Y-traps comprising an antibody targeting an immune checkpoint (CTLA-4 or PD-L1) fused to a TGFβ trap. In humanized mouse models, these Y-traps reverse immune suppression and inhibit growth of tumors that do not respond to current immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Astronomers have used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.
UCSB researchers collaborate to track commercial fishing worldwide in real time.
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas have devised a new technique to isolate aggressive cells thought to form the root of many hard-to-treat metastasized cancers -- a significant step toward developing new drugs that might target these cells.
The wetlands in and around Chicago are overwhelmingly invaded by non-native plants, according to a new study by University of Illinois researchers. The study, which pulls together species occurrence data from over 2,000 wetlands in the urban region, is the first to describe wetland invasion patterns on such a large scale in the Chicagoland area.
The types of snacks a child chooses could be linked to genetics, a University of Guelph study found.The study investigated whether genetic variants in taste receptors related to sweet, fat and bitter tastes influence the snacks preschoolers choose and found nearly 80 per cent carried at least one of these genotypes that could predispose them to poor snacking habits.These findings could help parents tailor their kids' diets based on their genetics of taste.
Heroin is worse than other drugs because people inject it much sooner, potentially resulting in increased risk of injection-related epidemics such as hepatitis C and HIV, a Keck School of Medicine of USC study shows. As more people use opioids, many switch to heroin because it's more potent and cheaper - a trend that complicates disease prevention as health officials crack down on opioids.
In a recently published study supported by Food Allergy Research & Education, researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have described a signaling pathway that can contribute to the dangerous circulatory and respiratory symptoms of anaphylaxis. The pathway, which promotes fluid loss from blood vessels into surrounding tissues, includes the interleukin-4 receptor, a protein that is targeted by a drug already approved to treat moderate to severe eczema. These findings hold promise for a treatment to make anaphylaxis less deadly.
Humans have been fishing the seas for over 42,000 years. However, the global footprint of fishing was poorly understood -- until now. A new study published today in Science illuminates the extent of global fishing -- down to individual vessel movements and hourly activity -- and finds that fishing occurs in over 55 percent of the world's oceans. By revealing where and when fishing occurs, the findings open an unprecedented gateway for improved ocean management.
A UCLA study explored the relationship between new drivers' skills and age, gender, organized sports and video gaming. The results suggest that mandatory training should be required for all novice drivers, not just teenagers.
Creating the perfect wearable device to monitor muscle movement, heart rate and other tiny bio-signals without breaking the bank has inspired scientists to look for a simpler and more affordable tool. Now, a team of researchers at UBC's Okanagan campus have developed a practical way to monitor and interpret human motion, in what may be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to wearable technology.
A new technique developed by neuroscientists at U of T Scarborough can reconstruct images of what people perceive based on their brain activity gathered by EEG.
New CHILD Study research has found that overweight and obese women are more like to have children who are overweight or obese by three years of age--and that bacteria in the gut may be partially to blame.
The fungus that causes athlete's foot and other skin and toenail infections may have lost its ability to sexually reproduce as it adapted to grow on human hosts. The discovery that this species may be asexual -- and therefore nearly identical at the genetic level -- uncovers potential vulnerabilities that researchers could exploit in designing better antifungal medications. The findings appear online in Genetics.
Injections of cardiac progenitor cells help reverse the fatal heart disease caused by Duchenne muscular dystrophy and also lead to improved limb strength and movement ability, a new study shows. The study, published today in Stem Cell Reports, showed that when researchers injected cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) into the hearts of laboratory mice with muscular dystrophy, heart function improved along with a marked increase in exercise capacity.
Schizophrenia may be related to neurodevelopment changes, including brain's inability to create the appropriate vascular system, according to new study resulted from a partnership between the D'Or Institute for Research and Education, the University of Chile and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The results broaden the understanding about the causes of this severe and disabling disorder, which affects about 1 percent of the world's population.
Belgian, English and Australian scientists are calling on the Australian authorities to review their decision to introduce the carp herpes virus as a way to combat the common carp having colonised the country's rivers. In a letter published in the journal Science, they not only believe that this measure will be ineffective but that it also represents a risk to ecosystems.
When a complex system is left alone, it will return to its initial state with almost perfect precision. Gas particles in a container, for example, will return almost exactly to their starting positions after some time. For decades, scientists have investigated how this 'Poincaré Recurrence Theorem' can be applied to the world of quantum physics. Now, researchers at TU Wien (Vienna) have successfully demonstrated a kind of 'Poincaré recurrence' in a multi-particle quantum system.
For work reported in Science, Elizabeth Vierling at UMass Amherst and Justin Benesch at Oxford University looked at two types of small HSPs to address what they call a "basic evolutionary puzzle." That is, how two different types of small HSPs, Class I and Class II, evolved from a single type over 400 million years ago to form two distinct types with different functions.
A new genomic study reveals that the oldest known domesticated horse population, which lived on the Central Asian steppes roughly 5,500 years ago, did not sire the domesticated horses of today.