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Genetic drift caught in action in invasive birds

Eurekalert - Jan 17 2018 - 00:01
Studies of island bird populations have taught us a lot about evolution, but it's hard to catch birds in the act of naturally colonizing new islands. Instead, a new study from The Auk: Ornithological Advances examines what's happened by looking at the genetics of a species that arrived in Hawaii in the twentieth century through decidedly unnatural means--us.
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Ultrathin black phosphorus for solar-driven hydrogen economy

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Osaka University researchers combined two different types of 2-D materials -- black phosphorus and bismuth vanadate -- to form a biologically inspired water-splitting catalyst. Normal sunlight could drive the reactions and careful design of the catalyst enabled the expected ratio of hydrogen and oxygen production.
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Nanowrinkles could save billions in shipping and aquaculture

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Biofouling costs shipping billions in increased fuel costs and affects aquaculture. A nanostructured surface inspired by the carnivorous pitcher plant could slash those costs.
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Designing the next generation of hair dyes

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
A public database of more than 300 substances used to dye hair will help accelerate research and development work on more sustainable hair color. North Carolina State University researchers say computer modeling can save years of lab work and millions of dollars.
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LJI researchers discover key driver of atopic dermatitis

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Severe eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is driven by an allergic reaction. In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute reveal an important player that promotes skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and the characteristic thickening of the skin.
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Study: High tolerance for wildlife exists around Indian reserves despite continued losses

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
A new study from WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), Duke University, and the Centre for Wildlife Studies in India finds that communities living near wildlife reserves in Rajasthan, India, show a high tolerance for wildlife. This is despite them having experienced losses in crops and livestock as a result of interaction with wildlife like nilgai, jackal and wild pig, as well as larger carnivores such as leopard and wolves. Understanding these attitudes towards wildlife is critical to informing park management policies and practices.
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Chronic disease care: Family helpers play key roles, but feel left out by providers

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
People with chronic diseases often live independent lives, without a traditional 'caregiver.' But many of them have a family member or friend who plays a key supporting role in their health care. A new study finds that many of these 'health supporters' wish they could understand their loved one's condition better, or get more involved in helping them navigate a long-term illness.
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Ancient DNA results end 4,000-year-old Egyptian mummy mystery

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Using 'next generation' DNA sequencing scientists have found that the famous 'Two Brothers' mummies of the Manchester Museum have different fathers so are, in fact, half-brothers. The Two Brothers are the Museum's oldest mummies and amongst the best-known human remains in its Egyptology collection. They are the mummies of two elite men -- Khnum-nakht and Nakht-ankh -- dating to around 1800 BC.
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Quick quick slow is no-go in crab courtship dance

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Female fiddler crabs are sensitive to changes in the speed of a male's courtship display, significantly preferring displays that accelerate to those that are performed at a constant speed or slow down.
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'Heart-on-a-chip' process aims to speed up drug testing

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Testing new clinical drugs' effect on heart tissue could become quicker and more straightforward, thanks to new research from Harvard University.The study, published today in the journal Biofabrication, sets out a new, faster method for manufacturing a 'heart-on-a-chip,' which can be used to test the reaction of heart tissue to external stimuli.
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No-fishing zones help endangered penguins

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Small no-fishing zones around colonies of African penguins can help this struggling species, new research shows.
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Magnetically applied MicroRNAs could one day help relieve constipation

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Micro metal beads and magnets help deliver a biologic where it's needed to improve constipation or rectoanal incontinence in animal models of the disorders.
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Stronger, able older adults have better outcomes when hospitalized with critical illnesses

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Until now, the role of strength before hospitalization has not been well-studied. To fill this knowledge gap, a research team created a study. The study was to learn how older adults' strength before they became ill affected how long they stayed in the hospital after being admitted to an ICU. They also learned whether or not the older adults died while in the hospital or within a year after discharge. Their study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
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Biodegradable sensor could help doctors monitor serious health conditions

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
University of Connecticut engineers have created a biodegradable pressure sensor that could help doctors monitor chronic lung disease, swelling of the brain, and other medical conditions before dissolving harmlessly in a patient's body.
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Tracking the impact of early abuse and neglect

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Maltreatment experienced before age 5 can have negative effects that continue to be seen nearly three decades later, according to a new study led by Lee Raby, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Utah.
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Bright light therapy improves sleep in people treated for cancer

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Results of a randomized controlled trial suggest that systematic bright light exposure can improve sleep for fatigued people who have been treated for cancer.
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New study suggests shark declines can lead to changes in reef fish body shapes

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Scientists studying nearly identical coral reef systems off Australia discovered something unusual on the reefs subjected to nearly exclusive fishing of sharks--fish with significantly smaller eyes and tails. The study is the first field evidence of body shape changes in fish due to human-driven shark declines from overfishing. These findings shed new light on the cascading effects the loss of the ocean's top predators is having on marine ecosystems.
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Study advances gene therapy for glaucoma

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
In a study published today in the scientific journal Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kaufman and Curtis Brandt, a fellow professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at UW-Madison, showed an improved tactic for delivering new genes into the eye's fluid drain, called the trabecular meshwork. It could lead to a treatment for glaucoma.
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Weather anomalies accelerate the melting of sea ice

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
ETH researchers reveal why Arctic sea ice began to melt in the middle of winter two years ago -- and that the increased melting of ice in summer is linked to recurring periods of fair weather.
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Clockwork under the microscope

Eurekalert - Jan 16 2018 - 00:01
Circadian clocks regulate the behaviour of all living things. Scientists from the University of Würzburg have now taken a closer look at the clock's anatomical structures and molecular processes in the honeybee.
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