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Let's talk about sex chromosomes

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Vincent Pasque from KU Leuven, Belgium, and Kathrin Plath from UCLA led an international study into how specialized cells reprogram to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). The researchers discovered that female and male cells behave differently after the reprogramming process and that this is due to their different number of X chromosomes.
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Genetic adaptations to diving discovered in humans for the first time

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Evidence that humans can genetically adapt to diving has been identified for the first time in a new study. The evidence suggests that the Bajau, a people group indigenous to parts of Indonesia, have genetically enlarged spleens which enable them to free dive to depths of up to 70 meters. The relationship between spleen size and dive capacity has never before been examined in humans at the genetic level.
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BIDMC-lead team develops new approach to study long non-coding RNAs

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
In a groundbreaking paper, investigators at the Cancer Research Institute Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center developed a novel approach to identify and determine the functional role of lncRNAs relevant to chemotherapy resistance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). The new technique integrates information from publicly-available pharmacological data bases with leading-edge CRISPR technologies to screen for both coding and non-coding genes that influence response to treatment.
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Molecule that dilates blood vessels hints at new way to treat heart disease

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Americans die of heart or cardiovascular disease at an alarming rate. In fact, heart attacks, strokes and related diseases will kill an estimated 610,000 Americans this year alone. Some medications help, but to better tackle this problem, researchers need to know exactly how the heart and blood vessels stay healthy in the first place.
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Using the right plants can reduce indoor pollution and save energy

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
In a Review published April 19 in Trends in Plant Science, Frederico Brilli, a plant physiologist at the National Research Council of Italy - Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, and colleagues conclude that a better knowledge of plant physiology, along with integration of smart-sensor-controlled air cleaning technologies, could improve indoor air quality in a cost-effective and sustainable way.
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Neurons derived from super-obese people respond differently to appetite hormones

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
US scientists have successfully generated hypothalamic-like neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) taken from the blood and skin cells of super-obese individuals and people with a normal body weight. The researchers found that the brain cells derived from the super obese were more likely to dysregulate hormones related to feeding behavior and hunger, as well as obesity-related genes and metabolic pathways. The work appears April 19 in the journal Cell Stem Cell.
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Enlarged spleen key to diving endurance of Indonesian 'sea nomads'

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
The Bajau, a population of sea nomads in Indonesia, are known for their ability to conduct prolonged and repeated deep dives while holding their breath. A new analysis by University of Copenhagen and UC Berkeley scientists shows that they evolved this ability by enlarging their spleen about 50 percent. A genetic analysis links this to upregulated thyroid hormone. This is a unique adaptation to living in a low-oxygen environment, the researchers say.
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Optogenetic study shows that male flies find ejaculation pleasurable

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Researchers reporting in Current Biology on April 19 show that male fruit flies find sex -- and more specifically ejaculation -- to be an inherently rewarding experience. The study is the first to show that the rewarding nature of ejaculation is conserved among animals, from flies and mammals. It also adds to evidence that manipulating sexual experience in flies affects their interest in consuming alcohol, the researchers say.
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Natural selection gave a freediving people in Southeast Asia bigger spleens

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
The Bajau people of Southeast Asia, known as Sea Nomads, spend their whole lives at sea, working eight-hour diving shifts with traditional equipment and short breaks to catch fish and shellfish for their families. In a study published April 19 in the journal Cell, researchers report that the extraordinary diving abilities of the Bajau may be thanks in part to their unusually large spleens, a rare example of natural selection in modern humans.
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For nuclear weapons reduction, a way to verify without revealing

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
MIT researchers have found a new way of verifying nuclear weapons reduction agreements without revealing secret information, using a physical cryptographic key and nuclear resonant phenomena.
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Researchers achieve HD video streaming at 10,000 times lower power

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Engineers at the University of Washington have developed a new HD video streaming method that doesn't need to be plugged in. Their prototype skips power-hungry components and has something else, like a smartphone, process the video instead.
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Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
UConn researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
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Atoms may hum a tune from grand cosmic symphony

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. Their work, which forges new connections between atomic physics and the sudden expansion of the early universe, will be published in Physical Review X and highlighted by Physics.
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Smartphone app successfully promotes child car seat safety

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
A smartphone app designed to promote proper child car seat use among parents proved effective in a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
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British pilots score high on burnout scale -- but still perform well

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
A study among British airline pilots shows that 20 percent of them have scores on a burnout scale that are comparable to those of people that are under burnout treatment. Surprisingly, the same study shows that only one of the 1147 pilots that participated, did not meet the performance standards at the regular flight simulator training. The authors argue that airline companies need to offer better support and facilities to their pilots to help them cope with their stressful jobs.
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Young victims of cyberbullying twice as likely to attempt suicide and self-harm

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
New research suggests that it is not just the victims of cyberbullying that are more vulnerable to suicidal behaviours, but the perpetrators themselves are also at higher risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviours.
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More students report carrying guns in Chicago than New York or Los Angeles

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
More students report carrying guns in Chicago than in New York or Los Angeles, a new Northwestern Medicine study shows. The findings provide historical background for Chicago's 2016 spike in gun violence, which occurred mostly among youth and young adults.
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Chip-based blood test for multiple myeloma could make bone biopsies a relic of the past

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
A University of Kansas research effort has resulted in a low-cost, reliable blood test that uses a small plastic chip about the size of a credit card that can deliver the same diagnostic information as a bone biopsy -- but using a simple blood draw instead.
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Blowfly uses saliva to keep cool

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
On warm days the Oriental latrine blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala) keeps cool by moving a droplet of saliva repeatedly in and out of its buccal apparatus, or mouth, and then swallowing it.
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Drug combination targeting HSP90 and BRAF is safe and effective in advanced melanoma

Eurekalert - Apr 19 2018 - 00:04
A team of researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have been working to learn more about how melanoma becomes resistant to BRAF inhibitors in order to develop new treatment strategies. They tested whether a drug targeting heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) combined with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib could be a safe and potentially effective strategy to treat patients with melanoma. Their study was published online ahead of print in Clinical Cancer Research.
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