Three new studies highlight major environmental, ecological and technological changes that occurred in East Africa preceding the Middle Stone Age roughly 300,000 years ago, around the time that anatomically modern humans were evolving.
Young, resting neural stem cells in the brains of mice store large clumps of proteins in specialized cellular trash compartments known as lysosomes, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found.
Researchers at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute made an important step toward deeper understanding of how malaria blood stage parasites turn the switch to become transmissible to other humans. This knowledge is fundamental for future research aiming to interrupt malaria transmission. The results will be published on Friday, March 16, 2018, in the multidisciplinary journal Science.
Scientists discovered that early humans in East Africa had -- by about 320,000 years ago -- begun trading with distant groups, using color pigments and manufacturing more sophisticated tools than those of the Early Stone Age, tens of thousands of years earlier than previous evidence has shown in eastern Africa. As earthquakes remodeled the landscape and climate fluctuated between wet and dry conditions, technological and social innovation would have helped early humans survive unpredictable conditions.
More than 500 years ago, Leonardo da Vinci sketched what he called 'la turbolenza,' comparing chaotic swirls atop flowing water to curly human hair. It turns out those patterns influence myriad phenomena, from the drag on an airplane's wings and the formation of Jupiter's red spot to the rustling of tree leaves.
Interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis proteins and host cell proteins help determine whether the bacterium leaves an infected cell via breakdown of the cellular membrane (lysis) or in a membrane-bound package, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Phu Hai Nguyen of the National Institutes of Health, US, and colleagues.
The burden of yellow fever in any given area is known to be heavily dependent on climate, particularly rainfall and temperature which can impact both mosquito life cycle and viral replication. Now, researchers from Imperial College London and the World Health Organization (WHO) have developed a new model to quantify yellow fever dynamics across Africa using not only annual averages of these climatic measures, but seasonal dynamics. Their work is described in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter?
Neuroscientists at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre have identified a circuit in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the brain that integrates head- and visual-motion signals. The study, published today in Neuron, elucidates the mechanisms by which visual and vestibular inputs to the brain sum together to enable appropriate behavioural responses.
People's willingness to use a Zika vaccine, once it's available, will be influenced by how they weigh the risks associated with the disease and the vaccine, but also by their misconceptions about other vaccines.
NASA got an inside look at the heavy rainfall within developing Tropical cyclone Eliakim.
Researchers in the UPV/EHU's Signal and Communications Group in collaboration with researchers in the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have developed an algorithm to guide an effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation manoeuvre. Based on chest acceleration, it calculates the depth and frequency at which the chest compressions are being performed. The prestigious PLOS ONE journal reports on the research by publishing a validation of the algorithm with acceleration signals recorded during actual instances of cardiorespiratory arrest.
The gateway to cellular headquarters has 552 components. A new map that shows how all these pieces fit together could help scientists study numerous diseases.
In supersonic engines, achieving the right flow speed, producing the right ratio of evaporated fuel and causing ignition at the right time is complex. Vortices are affected by the shock wave, and this changes the way the fuel combusts and multiplies the number of possibilities of how particles can behave. To deepen our understanding, researchers use numerical modeling to calculate the huge variety of possible outcomes. They discuss their work in Physics of Fluids.
While the behavior of blood cells flowing within single, straight vessels is a well-known problem, less is known about the individual cellular-scale events giving rise to blood behavior in microvascular networks. To better understand this, researchers Peter Balogh and Prosenjit Bagchi published a recent study in the Biophysical Journal.
Leading scientists and other experts from around the world will convene for eight days with policymakers from more than 115 countries to finalize landmark reports on biodiversity, nature's contributions to people and issues of land degradation and restoration.The sixth session of the Plenary of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (#IPBES6), chaired by Sir Robert Watson, begins Saturday at the Intercontinental Hotel, Medellín, Colombia.
Didik Prasetyo's passion is learning more about the endangered apes and trying to conserve their habitats and populations, which face enormous pressure from deforestation from logging, palm oil and paper pulp production and hunting. He co-authored an alarming recent study in Current Biology on the estimated loss of more than 100,000 Bornean orangutans between 1999 and 2015.
Inhibitory interneurons are particularly important for managing brain rhythms. They're also the research focus of a laboratory led by Jorge Palop, PhD, assistant investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. In a study published in Neuron, Palop and his collaborators uncovered the therapeutic benefits of genetically improving these interneurons and transplanting them into the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
A new study, which included experiments at Berkeley Lab, suggests that water may be more common than expected at extreme depths approaching 400 miles and possibly beyond -- within Earth's lower mantle. The study explored microscopic pockets of a trapped form of crystallized water molecules in a sampling of diamonds.
A recent study in 2500 participants in the Offspring cohort of the Framingham Heart Study looked at the value of measuring blood levels of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids to assess an individual's risk for developing certain diseases and determined that the risk for death from any cause was reduced by about 33% in participants with the highest omega-3 blood levels.