In the fight against HIV, microbicides, which are chemical compounds applied topically to the female genital tract to protect against sexually transmitted infections, are touted as an alternative to condoms.
There's just one problem. They don't work outside a petri dish. Clinical trials using microbicides have failed and a new study from the Gladstone Institutes and the University of Ulm finds that this may be due to the primary mode of transportation of the virus during sexual transmission, semen.
17 genomes of supercentenarians, people living beyond 110 years of age, haven't led us any closer to discovering protein-altering variants significantly associated with extreme longevity, according to a study in PLOS ONE by Hinco Gierman from Stanford University and colleagues.
There are 74 supercentenarians alive worldwide, with 22 in the United States. The authors of this study performed whole-genome sequencing on 17 of them to explore the genetic basis underlying extreme human longevity.
If surveys are accurate, up to 20 percent of students have taken Modafinil (Provigil), a psychostimulant embraced by "lifehackers" in the naturalistic crowd, to boost their ability to study and improve their chances of exam success.
It is claimed, mostly by other students and readers of New York Magazine, that Modafinil is a 'smart' drug. Yet that isn't the case. Just like people without celiac disease are actually damaging their health giving up gluten and replacing it with the extra sugar, extra fat, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and xanthan gum found in gluten-free foods, healthy students who take Modafinil instead find their performance impaired by the drug.
In hydraulic fracturing - fracking - a mixture of sand, water and chemicals is injected into deep wells to release fossil fuels. This has led to environmental corporation claims that the reduced emissions from natural gas are being offset environmentally by surfactants.
A surfactant is basically a detergent. It reduces the surface tension between water and oil, allowing for more oil to be extracted from porous rock underground.
A University of Colorado Boulder study has found there is little to fear. The surfactant chemicals found in samples of fracking fluid collected in five states were no more toxic than substances commonly found in homes - including organic products.
In the last 30 years, the United States has grown more food using less land and with less environmental strain than ever believed possible. Fertilizers are better, pesticides are better and genetic modification has led to less need for both.
But some scientifically developing nations, including much of Europe, are still using more antiquated approaches, and then means a lot of nitrogen. Nitrogen boosts plant growth and yield even on poor soils, which helps plants avoid the typical characteristics of nitrogen deficiency - stunted growth and pale or yellow leaves - but in environmentally intensive approaches like organic farming, the left over nitrogen can be substantial.
The Six Billion Dollar Man is getting a little bit closer, not just to movie theaters, but in real life.
A new development toward a prosthetic retina could help counter conditions that result from retinal degeneration, a life-altering health issue for many people, especially as they age.
Trans fats are bad, they damage metabolic health in kids, according to experts and policy makers. So they were banned. Happy Meals too. And drinks with sugar.
It's fashionable in nutritional circles to demonize sodas but they also embrace a lot of unsubstantiated food fads. How much real prospective fact-finding has gone into their beliefs?
Not much, it is instead epidemiology putting two curves next to each other and declaring causation.
FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is an Hsp90 co-chaperone and regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, and consequently of stress physiology. It regulates acute and chronic effects of treatment with antidepressants via autophagic pathways (processes by which cells break down and recycle their components) in mice and is linked to the clinical response to antidepressants in humans, according to a new paper.
Did you spend those pre-school years telling your child how smart and wonderful they are? School is going to be an unwelcome dose of reality.
While we all want kids to be self-confident, unrealistic perceptions of academic abilities can be harmful, a new study of eighth-graders finds. The more one student feels unrealistically superior to another, the less the two students like each other.
When it comes to human life, we never think about culling the herd, instead the goal is to keep as many people alive and healthy as possible.
But in nature, that isn't the best approach. Some plant diseases attack trees and crops and can hurt lumber and food production, but pathogens that kill tree seedlings can actually make forests more diverse.
Policy makers and amateur psychology pundits think "necessity is the mother of invention" - and sometimes it is, that is why that became a saying, but plain old opportunity matters a lot. Natural gas had been around for 70 years, for example, and the United States has plenty of coal, but hydraulic fracturing, a modern form of extraction, has made natural gas cheaper and led to reduced greenhouse gas emissions, a competitive advantage and a 'win' for the environment - it was developed due to opportunity, not necessity.
As baby boomers, originally the children born in 1946, after soldiers returned home from World War II in 1945 but later extended out to be an entire generation, move into old age, the financial burden of Alzheimer's disease in the United States will skyrocket to $1.5 trillion from current from $307 billion
estimates, according to health policy scholars at the USC Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2012, 43.1 million Americans were 65 and older, constituting 14 percent of the population. By 2050, that number will more than double to 83.7 million, constituting 21 percent of the population.
By Jacqueline Sanchez Taylor, University of Leicester-->
Acute rejection after kidney transplantation occurs in about 15% of patients despite immunosuppressive therapy and this rejection is usually heralded by an increase in the patient's serum creatinine, a marker of kidney function. A kidney biopsy is then performed to confirm whether rejection is taking place.
Yet elevated creatinine is not sufficiently sensitive to identify all early rejection or specific enough to prevent some unnecessary kidney biopsies, so a noninvasive means of identifying acute rejection is needed.
By Suzie Gibson
Mental illness and women’s sexuality are frequently aligned – on screen and off. The father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, pathologized women’s sexuality. Indeed, his definition of a woman as someone lacking a penis has underwritten depictions of women’s sexuality.
Countless novels, films and TV programs continually pathologize women through and because of their sexuality.-->
By Paul Cally, Monash University
The largest sunspot seen in 24 years is rotating back to face the Earth, and it looks to have grown even bigger.-->
By Alan Fitzsimmons, Queen's University Belfast
The first attempted landing on the surface of a comet is a huge landmark in the history of space exploration that will not only uncover further details about comets but could unlock further clues about the origins of our solar system and the development of life on Earth.-->