Science2.0

The Calorie Is Broken - And That's Why Dieting Doesn't Always Work

Science2.0 - January 27, 2016 - 1:30pm
Bo Nash is 38. He lives in Arlington, Texas, where he’s a technology director for a textbook publisher. He has a wife and child. And he’s 5’10” and 245 lbs – which means he is classed as obese.

In an effort to lose weight, Nash uses an app to record the calories he consumes and a Fitbit band to track the energy he expends. These tools bring an apparent precision: Nash can quantify the calories in each cracker crunched and stair climbed. But when it comes to weight gain, he finds that not all calories are equal. How much weight he gains or loses seems to depend less on the total number of calories, and more on where the calories come from and how he consumes them. The unit, he says, has a “nebulous quality to it”.

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Can Affluent Medical Students Understand Patients Who Aren't?

Science2.0 - January 27, 2016 - 1:18pm
Thousands of bright-eyed and bushy-tailed students recently found out whether they had been accepted into Australian medical schools.

Selection is a highly competitive process, requiring an impressive combination of high secondary school results (ATAR/GPA), high results on various medical admissions tests (UMAT/GAMSAT), cogent personal statements and/or performance in multiple mini interviews.
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A Pen To See Cancer

Science2.0 - January 27, 2016 - 11:23am
Surgeons removing a malignant brain tumor don’t want to leave cancerous material behind, but they also need to protect healthy brain matter and minimize neurological harm. Once the patient’s skull is open, there’s no time to send tissue samples to a pathology lab to be frozen, sliced, stained, mounted on slides and investigated under a bulky microscope in order distinguish between cancerous and normal brain cells.

A handheld, miniature microscope could allow surgeons to “see” at a cellular level in the operating room and determine where to stop cutting. The researchers hope that after testing the microscope’s performance as a cancer- screening tool, it can be introduced into surgeries or other clinical procedures within the next 2 to 4 years.
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Ecotourism, Natural Resource Conservation Proposed As Allies To Protect Natural Landscapes

Science2.0 - January 27, 2016 - 2:01am

Athens, Ga. - If environmentalists want to protect fragile ecosytems from landing in the hands of developers--in the U.S. and around the globe--they should team up with ecotourists, according to a University of Georgia study published in the Journal of Ecotourism.

Environmentalists often fear that tourists will trample all over sensitive natural resource areas, but tourism may bring the needed and only economic incentives to help drive conservation, said study co-author Bynum Boley, an assistant professor in UGA's Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources. Ecotourism and natural resource conservation already have a mutually beneficial relationship that is ideal for creating a sustainable partnership.


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1 In 10 Suicide Attempt Risk Among Friends And Relatives Of People Who Die By Suicide

Science2.0 - January 27, 2016 - 2:01am

People bereaved by the sudden death of a friend or family member are 65% more likely to attempt suicide if the deceased died by suicide than if they died by natural causes. This brings the absolute risk up to 1 in 10, reveals new UCL research funded by the Medical Research Council.

The researchers studied 3,432 UK university staff and students aged 18-40 who had been bereaved, to examine the specific impacts associated with bereavement by suicide. The results are published in BMJ Open.

As well as the increased risk of suicide attempt, those bereaved by suicide were also 80% more likely to drop out of education or work. In total, 8% of the people bereaved by suicide had dropped out of an educational course or a job since the death.


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Heavy Smokers Who Quit More Than 15 Years Ago Still At High Risk For Lung Cancer And Should Be Screened

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 10:26pm

ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Expanding lung cancer screening to include people who quit smoking more than 15 years ago could detect more cases and further reduce associated mortality, according to a study by Mayo Clinic researchers published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology.


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E-cigarette Vapor Boosts Superbugs And Dampens Immune System

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 10:24pm

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report data suggesting that e-cigarettes are toxic to human airway cells, suppress immune defenses and alter inflammation, while at the same time boosting bacterial virulence. The mouse study is published January 25 by the Journal of Molecular Medicine.


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Embracing Negative Comments Can Help Corporations Increase Consumer Trust

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 10:24pm

Washington, DC (January 26, 2016) - Public trust is incredibly hard won once a corporation has been mired in negative publicity. Volkswagen and Chipotle face huge obstacles in regaining consumers after debacles, but can simply owning up to their transgressions on social media really help? A recent study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota and Youngstown State University found that embracing supporting and opposing perspectives to comments by a corporation can enhance its trustworthiness.


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Pharmacists Key To Detecting Chronic Kidney Disease In At-risk Patients

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 10:24pm

January 26, 2016 (Ottawa): Pharmacists who screened at-risk patients for chronic kidney disease (CKD) found previously unrecognized disease in 1 of every 6.4 patients tested, according to a study to be published in the January/February 2016 issue of the Canadian Pharmacists Journal.

"It was actually surprising for us," says the study's primary author, Dr. Yazid Al Hamarneh, a pharmacist and the scientific officer for Consultation and Research Services in Alberta's SPOR (Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research) SUPPORT Unit. "We knew that we would find unrecognized cases, but not that many."

The study is one of the first to provide concrete evidence of the benefits of allowing community pharmacists to order laboratory tests and see patients' test results.


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Don't Blame Grey Squirrels For Their British Invasion - Blame British Royalty

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:30pm

DNA profiling reveals grey squirrels are not as good invaders as we think, and that humans played a much larger role in spreading them through the UK.

Grey squirrels were imported to the UK from the 1890s onwards, and the traditional view is that they spread rapidly across the UK due to their ability cope with new landscapes. Different populations of grey squirrels were thought to have interbred into a 'supersquirrel' that was better able to adapt and spread.


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Zika Virus Found In Colombia

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:30pm

In October 2015, a team of researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Universidad de Sucre in Colombia ran the first tests confirming the presence of Zika virus transmission in the South American country.

In a study published today [Jan 26, 2016] in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases, the team documents a disease trajectory that started with nine positive patients and has now spread to more than 13,000 infected individuals in that country.

"Colombia is now only second to Brazil in the number of known Zika infections," says study lead author Matthew Aliota, a research scientist in the UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine (SVM).


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Anti-hydrogen Origin Revealed By Collision Simulation

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:09pm

Antihydrogen is a particular kind of atom, made up of the antiparticle of an electron - a Positron - and the antiparticle of a Proton - an antiproton. Scientists hope that studying the formation of anti hydrogen will ultimately help explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe. In a new study published in EPJ D, Igor Bray and colleagues from Curtin University, Perth, Australia, demonstrate that the two different numerical calculation approaches they developed specifically to study collisions are in accordance. As such, their numerical approach could therefore be used to explain antihydrogen formation.


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Delivering The Internet Of The Future -- At The Speed Of Light And Open Sourced

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:09pm

New research has found, for the first time, a scientific solution that enables future internet infrastructure to become completely open and programmable while carrying internet traffic at the speed of light.

The research by High Performance Networks (HPN) group in the University of Bristol's Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering is published in the world's first scientific journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A.

The current internet infrastructure is not able to support independent development and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols, and services, while at the same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of changing and diverse applications.


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Progress Towards Data Sharing

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:05pm

Data sharing in medical research could soon become the norm, according to a series of articles published this month in PLOS Medicine. The papers, representing authors from the World Health Organization, the pharmaceutical corporation GlaxoSmithKline, the US National Library of Medicine, and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, and summarized in an Editorial by the PLOS Medicine Editors, discuss recent progress towards acceptance of data sharing, in particular for research related to public health emergencies, and for reports from clinical trials. The Editorial discusses the challenges that remain, including the need to ensure that researchers who share data receive appropriate recognition.


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Early Puberty Associated With Gestational Diabetes

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:05pm

Women who began having menstrual cycles at a younger age are at greater risk of developing gestational diabetes, a disease affecting up to 7 percent of pregnant women that can cause babies to develop type 2 diabetes and other complications, new research shows.

Previous research has shown an association between beginning menstrual cycles, or menarche, at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the new study, published in Diabetes Care, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Diabetes Association, looked specifically at menarche and gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy.


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Regular Caffeine Consumption Doesn't Mean Extra Heartbeats

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 9:00pm

Contrary to current clinical belief, regular caffeine consumption does not lead to extra heartbeats that have been linked to heart-or stroke-related morbidity and mortality.

The study, which measured the chronic consumption of caffeinated products over a 12-month period, rather than acute consumption, appears in the January 2016 issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association. The authors say it is the largest to date to have evaluated dietary patterns in relation to extra heartbeats.


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Magnetic Compass Of Birds Affected By Polarized Light

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 8:57pm

The magnetic compass that birds use for orientation is affected by polarized light. This previously unknown phenomenon was discovered by researchers at Lund University in Sweden.

The discovery that the magnetic compass is affected by the polarization direction of light was made when trained zebra finches were trying to find food inside a maze. The birds were only able to use their magnetic compass when the direction of the polarized light was parallel to the magnetic field, not when perpendicular to the magnetic field.


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Transparency: Why Organic Groups Shouldn't Block Accurate Food Labels

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 3:09pm

Take a look at any food label and there's a good chance all design elements, from the color palette to the smallest detail, were meticulously chosen.


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Brain Function Differs In Obese Children

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 3:01pm

The brains of children who are obese function differently from those of children of healthy weight, and exhibit an "imbalance" between food-seeking and food-avoiding behaviors, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have found.

Diet and exercise may not be enough to restore normal weight or prevent overweight children from becoming obese, they conclude. It may be necessary to change their brain function.

In a paper published Thursday, Jan. 21, in the journal Heliyon, the researchers suggest that mindfulness, a practice used as a therapeutic technique to focus awareness, should be studied as a way to encourage healthy eating and weight loss in children.


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The Connection Between Excess Iron And Parkinson's Disease

Science2.0 - January 26, 2016 - 2:55pm

It's long been known that excess iron is found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), an incurable neurodegenerative condition that affects motor function. The mechanism by which the iron wreaks damage on neurons involved in PD has not been clear. Research from the Andersen lab at the Buck Institute suggests that the damage stems from an impairment in the lysosome, the organelle that acts as a cellular recycling center for damaged proteins. Scientists report the impairment allows excess iron to escape into the neurons where it causes toxic oxidative stress. The research will be published online in The Journal of Neuroscience on Jan. 27, 2016.


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