Hey Sasquatch? 3 "Bigfoot" genomes sequenced in DNA study

Posted By News On February 13, 2013 - 3:30pm

A multidisciplinary team of scientists announced on November 24, 2012 the results of a five-year long study of DNA samples from a novel hominin species they call "Bigfoot" and "Sasquatch,". They have published their findings today in the DeNovo Journal of Science. The Denovo Journal of Science publishes "new research articles in any area that aligns with the foundation's mission", which they don't specify.

The study, which sequenced three whole Sasquatch nuclear genomes, shows that the legendary Sasquatch is extant in North America and is a human relative that arose approximately 13,000 years ago and is hypothesized to be a hybrid cross of modern Homo sapiens with a novel primate species. A species name, Homo sapiens cognatus, has been applied for through ZooBank. "Cognatus," from the Latin "con" (with) and "natus" (born), means "blood relative."

The study, "Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies," was conducted by a team of experts in genetics, forensics, imaging and pathology. The team, led by Dr. Melba S. Ketchum of DNA Diagnostics in Nacogdoches, TX, included Dr. Pat Wojtkiecicz, Director of the North Louisiana Criminalistics Laboratory; Ms. Aliece Watts of Integrated Forensic Laboratories in Euless, TX; Mr. David Spence, Trace Evidence Supervisor at Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences; Dr. Andreas K. Holzenburg, Director of the Microscopy & Imaging Center at Texas A&M University; Dr. Douglas G. Toler of Huguley Pathology Consultants in Fort Worth, TX; Dr. Thomas M. Prychitko of Helix Biological Laboratory in Michigan; Dr. Fan Zhang of the University of North Texas Health Science Center; and Sarah Bollinger, Ray Shoulders, and Ryan Smith of DNA Diagnostics.

In total, 111 specimens of purported Sasquatch hair, blood, skin, and other tissue types were analyzed for the study. Samples were submitted by individuals and groups at 34 different hominin research sites in 14 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Ketchum's team sequenced 20 whole and 10 partial mitochondrial genomes, as well as 3 whole nuclear genomes, from the samples.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comes from mitochondria, energy-producing organelles in the cellular cytoplasm, and is passed down on the maternal lineage across generations. Nuclear DNA (nuDNA) is the genetic information contained in the cell nucleus and is the equal combination of DNA from the parents of an individual.

Initially a skeptic, Ketchum implemented strict protocols to ensure the scientific integrity of the study. DNA was extracted from samples using forensic procedures followed by screening of the samples to rule out contamination. Subsequently, the Q30 quality scores for all three genomes sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform were well above the average Q30 score of 85, indicating that the DNA used in the next generation sequencing was highly purified and originated from a single source for each of the three genomes sequenced. Prior to DNA testing, forensics experts examined the morphology of submitted hair samples against known human and animal samples.

"We soon discovered that certain hair samples--which we would later identify as purported Sasquatch samples--had unique morphology distinguishing them from typical human and animal samples," says Ketchum. "Those hair samples that could not be identified as known animal or human were subsequently screened using DNA testing, beginning with sequencing of mitochondrial DNA followed by sequencing nuclear DNA to determine where these individuals fit in the 'tree of life.'"

After extensive forensic controls to prevent contamination, mtDNA testing of the Sasquatch samples yielded fully modern human profiles. Sixteen haplotypes indicating 100% homology with modern human mtDNA sequences were observed from 20 completed whole and 10 partial mitochondrial genomes. The human mtDNA results are consistent with previous, unrelated mtDNA tests of purported Sasquatch samples from other laboratories.

Next-generation whole genome sequencing with the HiSeq 2000 platform by Illumina was performed at the University of Texas, Southwestern on one tissue sample, a saliva sample and one blood sample to produce 3 whole genomes. In contrast to the mtDNA which was unambiguously modern human, the Sasquatch nuDNA results were a mosaic of novel primate and human sequence.

"While the three Sasquatch nuclear genomes aligned well with one another and showed significant homology to human chromosome 11, the Sasquatch genomes were novel and fell well outside of known ancient hominin as well as ape sequences," explains Ketchum. "Because some of the mtDNA haplogroups found in our Sasquatch samples originated as late as 13,000 years ago, we are hypothesizing that the Sasquatch are human hybrids, the result of males of an unknown hominin species crossing with female Homo sapiens."

Hominins are members of the taxonomic grouping Hominini, which includes all members of the genus Homo.

At the time of publication, study and analysis of the Sasquatch genomes is ongoing through the Sasquatch Genome Project. Further data will be presented as it becomes available. Dr. Ketchum is also launching the Global Sasquatch Foundation at www.melbaketchum.org, a research foundation dedicated to advancing public education and non-invasive study of the Sasquatch people, as well as the protection of their human rights.

The following information was As reported in the PRweb of Seattle WA at http://www.seattlepi.com
“The team, led by Dr. Melba S. Ketchum, DVM, of DNA Diagnostics in Nacogdoches, TX, submitted a tissue sample, a saliva sample, and a blood sample to the DNA Laboratory at the University of Texas, Southwestern, who then sequenced the Three whole Nuclear Genomes using the Next-Generation Illumina HiSeq 2000 Platform. The University lab reported that the three genomes all attained Q30 quality scores above 88 on the Illumina Platform, which is significantly higher than the Platform average of 85, indicating highly-purified, single-source DNA with no contamination for each sample. The three Sasquatch genomes were reported to align well with one-another and show substantial homology to primate sequences.”
NOTE: The important fact to observe is that the three Q30 Scores of these three Genomes, with over 90 Gb of Raw seqence for each sample, (Comprising greater than 30x coverage), were 88.6, 88.4 and 88.7 respectively. The Q30 is the percent of reads that have the statistical probability greater than 1:1000 of being correctly sequenced. According to Illumina, a pure single source sample would have a Q30 score of 80 or greater, with an average Q30 score of 85. Contaminated or multiple source samples would have Q30 scores of 40 to 50.
One very well qualified reviewer of the Study, Biochemist David H. Swenson PHD, of Green Resources Redux, Inc. commented very succinctly,
“Sasquatch is real, as proven by genetic analysis”.
The Skeptics will be long forgotten. They will forever be forced to exist on Crow Pie, which I believe is known to have a very bitter Fowl Taste.
My kudos to Dr. Melba Ketchum and all of the other the BRAVE researchers who absolutely refused to knuckle under to the legions of Skeptics and to give up and quit. They will go down in History!
Bigfoot Believer

The Sasquatch Genome Project:
Interested people should check out the website of this organization at: http://sasquatchgenomeproject.org/
There is an amazing amount of very interesting information available at this site, which is a "must read" for everyone.
Many questions that have been asked are very well answered.
Do not believe the critics who have suggested that the results of the DNA Study are flawed by contamination, because the work done at the University of Texas DNA Laboratory at Dallas, has determined that the three submitted samples were of very high purity and each of the three that produced NuDNA Genomes only came from a single source.
No one has suggested that the DNA sequencing by this lab was flawed in any way.
The speculation that contamination must have been present was found to be not factual or true, despite the protestations of legions of skeptics.
Dr. Melba Ketchum has announced that Professor Sykes of Oxford University will be following up on the Study and performing his own tests and analysis of the pertinent data.
That should be the final proof of the existence of this hominin. It is in fact a new species!

Are you sure that it is indeed Bigfoot genomes that were sequenced in DNA study or just a bogus news? Because though there were reported sightings of the Bigfoot, there was never a concrete evidence leading to it. anti snoring

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